For analyzing circuits containing active devices such as transistors, it is more convenient to think of the input terminals of a four-terminal coupling network as a **Thévenin-equivalent** voltage source and the output terminals as a Norton-equivalent current source. We then describe the coupling network in terms of four hybrid parameters (h-parameters). We determine these parameters using the same measurement techniques as for **z-parameters** and **y-parameters**.

To find the open-circuit voltage of the Thévenin-equivalent source at input terminals (port 1) in **Figure 1(a)**, we feed V_{2} into the output terminals (port 2). In this circuit, we consider the Thévenin-equivalent source to be a voltage-controlled voltage source. The parameter that represents the fraction of the output voltage appearing at the input terminals is V_{1}/V_{2}, which is a ratio without units. This parameter is the open-circuit reverse- voltage ratio, h_{12}.

Since we are treating the dependent source as a voltage-controlled voltage source, we short-circuit the output terminals while we measure the input voltage and current, as shown in **Figure 1(b).** The parameter h_{11} is V_{1}/I_{1}, which is expressed in ohms and represents the **short-circuit** input impedance of the network. Since h_{12}V_{2} is a voltage source, the equivalent input circuit for the coupling network shows the dependent voltage source and input impedance in series, as in **Figure 1(c).**

**Figure 1** Finding the Thévenin-equivalent input circuit of a four-terminal network: (a) Open-circuit reverse voltage; (b) Internal input impedance; (c) Network input parameters

To determine the short-circuit current of the Norton-equivalent source at the output terminals (port 2) in **Figure 2(a)**, we feed I_{1} into the input terminals and short-circuit the output terminals through the ammeter measuring I_{2}. As long as the network impedances are linear (independent of voltage and current), I_{2} will be a constant fraction of the input current I_{1}. The ratio I_{2}/I_{1} is the short-circuit forward-current ratio, h_{21}.

**Figure 2** Finding the Norton-equivalent output circuit of a four-terminal network: (a) short-circuit forward current; (b) output admittance; (c) complete hybrid parameters.

The output impedance of a Norton-equivalent source is in parallel with the current source, so the fourth hybrid parameter is expressed as an admittance. Since we are treating this dependent source as a current-controlled current source, we leave the input terminals of the network open-circuit to make I_{1} zero while we measure I_{2} and V_{2}. The parameter h_{22} is I_{2} /V_{2}, which is expressed in Siemens and represents the open-circuit output admittance. These equations summarize the four hybrid parameters of a four-terminal coupling network:

Short-circuit input impedance:

\[\begin{matrix}{{\text{h}}_{\text{11}}}\text{=}\frac{{{\text{V}}_{\text{1}}}}{{{\text{I}}_{\text{1}}}}\left( \text{with }{{\text{V}}_{\text{2}}}\text{=0} \right) & {} & \left( 1 \right) \\\end{matrix}\]

Open-circuit reverse-voltage ratio:

\[\begin{matrix}{{\text{h}}_{\text{12}}}\text{=}\frac{{{\text{V}}_{\text{1}}}}{{{\text{V}}_{\text{2}}}}\left( \text{with }{{\text{I}}_{\text{1}}}\text{=0} \right)Open-Circuit & {} & \left( 2 \right) \\\end{matrix}\]

Short-circuit forward-current ratio:

\[\begin{matrix}{{\text{h}}_{\text{21}}}\text{=}\frac{{{\text{I}}_{\text{2}}}}{{{\text{I}}_{\text{1}}}}\left( \text{with }{{\text{V}}_{\text{2}}}\text{=0} \right)Short-Circuit & {} & \left( 3 \right) \\\end{matrix}\]

Open-circuit output admittance:

\[\begin{matrix}{{\text{h}}_{\text{22}}}\text{=}\frac{{{\text{I}}_{\text{2}}}}{{{\text{V}}_{\text{2}}}}\left( \text{with }{{\text{I}}_{\text{1}}}\text{=0} \right) & {} & \left( 4 \right) \\\end{matrix}\]

**Figure 2(c)** shows the resulting h-parameter equivalent circuit. For the Thévenin-equivalent source for the network input, we can write a **Kirchhoff’s voltage-law** equation, as we did for z-parameters. For the Norton-equivalent source for the network output, we write a Kirchhoff’s current-law equation, as we did for y-parameters. The two unknowns in these equations are I_{1} and V_{2}.

$\begin{align}& \begin{matrix}{{\text{h}}_{\text{11}}}{{\text{I}}_{\text{1}}}\text{+}{{\text{h}}_{\text{12}}}{{\text{V}}_{\text{2}}}\text{=}{{\text{E}}_{\text{1}}} & {} & \left( 5 \right) \\\end{matrix} \\& \begin{matrix}{{\text{h}}_{\text{21}}}{{\text{I}}_{\text{1}}}\text{+}{{\text{h}}_{\text{22}}}{{\text{V}}_{\text{2}}}\text{=}{{\text{I}}_{\text{2}}} & {} & \left( 6 \right) \\\end{matrix} \\\end{align}$

The **transistor amplifier** equivalent circuit of **Figure 3** is a typical example of hybrid parameters.

**Figure 3** Hybrid parameters of a simple transistor amplifier

We cannot use Thevenin’s theorem to find the equivalent internal resistance of a dependent source when the controlling element is included in the transformation. Therefore, when we want to determine the input and output impedances of coupling networks, we must calculate V/I. We determined h_{11} with a short circuit across the output terminals of the network. In the circuit of **Figure 3**, Z_{in} differs slightly from h_{11} since the circuit has some reverse coupling.