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Lead Acid Battery Vs. Lithium Ion Battery

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Lithium Ion batteries are one of the most durable and reliable energy sources on the market and a drastic improvement over lead-acid in weight, capacity, and shelf life.

Lithium Ion Batteries are the safest lithium chemistry with the highest cycle life and are compatible with most standard chargers.

Lead acid batteries only have a charge efficiency of 85%. This means that for every amp sent to the batteries, only .85 amps are stored for use. Lithium ion batteries however have a charge efficiency of 99% so nearly every amp sent to them is stored and usable. Therefore, a lead acid battery will require a 15% larger – and more expensive – solar array to charge it as fast as a comparably sized lithium ion battery.

What makes Lithium Ion Battery the Better Choice?

How does Lithium Ion Battery compared with Lead-Acid Batteries?

Lead Acid Battery Lithium Ion Battery
Weight 27.5 kg (100Ah) 13.8 kg (100Ah)
Cycle Life 200 @ 100 % DoD 2800 @ 100 % DoD
Self-Discharge Up to 6 months Up to 12 months
Charge Time 8 to 12 hours 1 to 3 hours
Capacity Utilization 50-60% 80-100%
Life Years 3-5 years 7-8 years
Efficiency Up to 70% Up to 95 %
Volume Larger Volume Smaller Volume
Disassembly Crushed to separate components Can be dissembled easily
Maintenance Frequent maintenance i.e., water level, battery voltage, overcharging Fairly maintenance free
Cost Per Cycle $0.67 $0.31
Voltage Per Cell 2 V 3.2 V
Temperature Sensitivity Degrades significantly above 32oF Degrades above 95oF
Usable Energy 50% 80%
Charge/Discharge Cycles ~1200 <3000
Fast Charging Capability 50% in ~3 hours, 90% in 6-7 hours 90% in 1.5-2 hours
Emissions Gassing & Water Loss during Charging Zero-Gassing (Emission Free)
Energy Density 40 Wh/kg 95-140 Wh/kg
Resilience Damages through excessive discharge Less vulnerable to high discharge

 

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About Ahmad Faizan

Mr. Ahmed Faizan Sheikh, M.Sc. (USA), Research Fellow (USA), a member of IEEE & CIGRE, is a Fulbright Alumnus and earned his Master’s Degree in Electrical and Power Engineering from Kansas State University, USA.