All electric circuits convert electric energy into some other form of energy, such as heat, light, or mechanical energy. For many of these energy conversions, it does not matter whether the energy source for the circuit produces direct current or alternating current. Therefore, we find equivalent steady-state values for alternating …

Read More »## Energy Stored in an Inductor

If we connect an ideal inductor to a voltage source having no internal resistance, the voltage across the inductance must remain equal to the applied voltage. Therefore, the current rises at a constant rate, as shown in Figure 1(b). The source supplies electrical energy to the ideal inductor at the …

Read More »## Resistance Measurement Methods

Low Resistance Measurement We can determine an unknown resistance in Figure 1 by applying Ohm’s law to the readings obtained from the voltmeter and ammeter. This method requires that the unknown resistance is connected into a special circuit with two separate meters. This method is useful for measuring very low …

Read More »## What is Frequency Response | Basics

The reaction of a circuit has to change in frequency is referred to as its Frequency Response. For example, consider the parallel RLC circuit shown in Figure 1. If the operating frequency of the circuit increases, Here’s what happens: • The reactance of the inductor increases because of XL=2πfL. The …

Read More »## AC Waveform & AC Circuit Theory

Generally, the term Alternating Current (AC) is used to describe any current that periodically changes direction. For example, take a look at the circuit current time relationship as shown in Figure 1. The horizontal axis of the graph is used to represent time (t). The vertical axis of the graph …

Read More »## Effect of Temperature on Resistance | Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

Checking the voltage/current (V/I) ratio of conductors at various temperatures shows that the resistance of most conducting materials increases linearly with temperature except at very hot or very cold temperatures. Temperature has little effect on the resistance of some alloys, such as constantan. For a few materials, including carbon and …

Read More »## Resonance in Series and Parallel RLC Circuit

In any AC circuit consisting of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, either in series or in parallel, a condition can happen in which the reactive power of the capacitors and of the inductors become equal. This condition is called resonance. Simultaneous with the capacitive reactive power and the inductive reactive power being …

Read More »## Phase Relationships in AC Circuits | Phase Difference | Phase Shift

Phase Difference When we have two sine waves with the same frequency, the duration of one cycle is the same for both. Nonetheless, irrespective of their peak values, there are two possibilities: 1. The two waveforms reach their maximum values (and accordingly their minimum values) at the same instant. In this …

Read More »## Relationship between Voltage Current and Resistance

The fundamental relationship between resistance, voltage, and current can be expressed using Ohm’s law. Mathematically, it is expressed as: $V=IR$ Where, V is measured in Volts I is measured in Amps R is measured in Ohms Electric Current The electric current is a measure of the rate of flow (i.e., …

Read More »## Semiconductor Diode: Theory, Types & Characteristics

Diode Definition: A diode is a device designed to permit electron flow in one direction and block flow from the other direction. A diode consists of two electrodes: a cathode and an anode. A cathode is an electrode that emits (gives off) electrons. An anode collects the electrons and puts …

Read More »## Semiconductor Basics Tutorial

Semiconductor Definition: Semiconductors are elements which have a conductivity between conductors and insulators. Semiconductors can be pure materials, such as silicon or germanium, or a combination of different materials such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide. In a doping technique, impurities are added to pure semiconductors making changes in the …

Read More »## Low Pass & High Pass Filter Working Principle

Inductance and capacitance are quite useful in electronic circuitry. One example of this usefulness is the filter. A filter is a circuit that separates specific frequencies. There are many filter designs. For example, filters can be designed to pass low frequencies and reject high frequencies; to reject low frequencies and …

Read More »## RLC Resonance, Acceptor, Tank & Rejector Circuit

RLC networks are ac circuits that have resistors, capacitors, and inductors placed in the circuit to pass, reject, or control current. A circuit containing all three factors—resistance, inductance, and capacitance—is called an RLC circuit. The resulting impedance in an RLC circuit is equal to the vector addition of R in …

Read More »## AC Capacitor Circuits

When an ac voltage is applied to a capacitor, the plates charge and discharge repeatedly. During the first half-cycle, the plates charge up (one plate negative and one plate positive) and discharge back to zero. During the next half-cycle, the plates charge to the opposite polarities of the first half …

Read More »## RC Circuit: Transient Response & Time Constant

Definition: The response of current and voltage in a circuit immediately after a change in applied voltage is called the transient response. Refer to Figure 1. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC …

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