Semiconductor Definition: Semiconductors are elements which have a conductivity between conductors and insulators. Semiconductors can be pure materials, such as silicon or germanium, or a combination of different materials such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide. In a doping technique, impurities are added to pure semiconductors making changes in the …

Read More »## Low Pass & High Pass Filter Working Principle

Inductance and capacitance are quite useful in electronic circuitry. One example of this usefulness is the filter. A filter is a circuit that separates specific frequencies. There are many filter designs. For example, filters can be designed to pass low frequencies and reject high frequencies; to reject low frequencies and …

Read More »## RLC Resonance, Acceptor, Tank & Rejector Circuit

RLC networks are ac circuits that have resistors, capacitors, and inductors placed in the circuit to pass, reject, or control current. A circuit containing all three factors—resistance, inductance, and capacitance—is called an RLC circuit. The resulting impedance in an RLC circuit is equal to the vector addition of R in …

Read More »## AC Capacitor Circuits

When an ac voltage is applied to a capacitor, the plates charge and discharge repeatedly. During the first half-cycle, the plates charge up (one plate negative and one plate positive) and discharge back to zero. During the next half-cycle, the plates charge to the opposite polarities of the first half …

Read More »## RC Circuit: Transient Response & Time Constant

Definition: The response of current and voltage in a circuit immediately after a change in applied voltage is called the transient response. Refer to Figure 1. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC …

Read More »## AC Inductor Circuits

In an ac circuit, the applied voltage constantly varies and reverses polarity. Any inductance in the circuit will generate a counter emf, which will oppose the source voltage. This event can be observed by setting up the experiment. Connect a light to a six- volt dc source. Note its brilliance. …

Read More »## American Wire Gauge (AWG) System

Many conductors are much less than an inch in diameter. To simplify area calculations for such conductors, the foot-pound system uses an area unit, called a circular mil, based on a mil, or one-thousandth of an inch (see Figure 1). Definition: One circular mil (CM) is the area of a …

Read More »## Electrical Resistance Explained | Definition, Unit, Formula, Examples

Resistance Definition: It is the opposition to current and is symbolized by R. Its unit is the ohm, symbolized by the Greek letter Ω. A voltage applied to a conductor causes a net drift of free electrons along the length of the conductor. Repulsion from electrons entering the conductor from the circuit’s energy source …

Read More »## Voltage or Electric Potential Difference: Definition, Unit, Symbol, Examples

As we know that no current flows in a conductor unless a device (such as a battery) imparts energy to the free electrons. We say that the battery is the source of an electron-moving force or electromotive force, usually abbreviated to EMF. Electromotive force is a property that distinguishes an …

Read More »## What is Electric Current? Definition, Unit, Formula & Examples

An electric current is a flow of charged particles. In most circuits, these charged particles are free electrons. Although there is a free electron for each copper ion, Figure 1 shows only one of these free electrons so that we may trace its motion through the lattice. In Figure 1(a), …

Read More »## Basic Electrical Circuit: Theory, Components, Working, Diagram

A basic electrical circuit consists of three main components, a source of voltage, a load, and conductors. In Figure 1, a basic circuit is illustrated. This circuit consists of a battery as the source of electrical energy, a lamp as the electrical load, and two wires as the conductors connecting …

Read More »## How Does Static Electricity Work | Static Electricity Applications

Definition: The word static means at rest. Electricity can be at rest. The generation of static electricity can be demonstrated in many ways. When stroking the fur of a cat, you will notice that its fur is attracted to your hand as you bring your hand back over the cat. …

Read More »## Transient Response of Capacitor | RC Circuit: Time Constant & Transient Response

Definition: The response of current and voltage in a circuit immediately after a change in applied voltage is called the transient response. Refer to Figure 1. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC …

Read More »## Electrical Formulas Excel Sheet

This particular Electrical Formulas Excel Sheet will assist you to get a quick answer to the quantities related to the following topics: 1 – Basic Concepts of Electricity 2 – Electrical Quantities and Components 3 – OHM’s Law 4 – Series Circuits 5 – Parallel Circuits 6 – Series-Parallel Circuits …

Read More »## Inductors in AC and DC Circuits

The main action of an inductor is to resist a change in current. However, since the current in a DC circuit is constant, there is no induced voltage developed instantaneously across the inductor. The inductor does resist the initial inrush of current based on the time constant of the circuit. …

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