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# Basic Electrical

## Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Definition Maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power output is obtained when the load resistance RL is equal to Thevenin resistance Rth as seen from load Terminals. Fig.1: Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Any circuit or network may be represented by a Thevenin equivalent circuit.  The Thevenin …

## Nodal Analysis or Node voltage Method

Nodal analysis or Node voltage method uses node voltages as circuit variables in order to analyze the circuit. The objective of this section is to obtain a set of simultaneous linear equations. However, unlike the mesh analysis method, the procedure developed in this section depends on the choice of certain …

## Mesh Current Analysis | Mesh Analysis

The mesh is a closed path which does not contain any other closed path within it. This section shows that a set of simultaneous linear equations can be written which describes the network. This set of equations depends on a choice of loop currents used in connection with Kirchhoff’s law. …

## Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

In order to present Kirchhoff’s voltage law, we must introduce the concept of a “loop”. Since energy must be conserved when a charge goes around a loop, the energy given up by the charge equals the energy it gains. The same energy-conservation principle would apply if you carried a rock …

## Kirchhoff’s Current law (KCL)

For a given circuit, a connection of two or more elements is called a NODE. The particular circuit shown in figure 1 depicts an example of a node. Figure.1: Circuit for Kirchhoff’s Current Law We now present the Kirchhoff’s current law which is essentially the law of conservation of electric …

## RC Series Circuit and RC Time Constant

An accurate RC series circuit with a source connection is shown in the following Fig. The charging transient begins when a switch is closed, at a time t=0 sec. With the switch closed, the voltage equation is:   $E={{V}_{R}}+{{V}_{c}}$ $E=iR+{{V}_{c}}~~~\cdots ~~\left( 2 \right)$ At the instant, the switch is closed, the capacitor …

## Resistors in Series and Parallel

Resistance Resistance is defined as the measure of opposition to the motion of electrons due to their continuous collisions, with the atoms of the conductor. The unit of resistance is ohm. Let’s consider the conductor of cross-sectional area A and of length L as given below: The resistance of this …

## Capacitors in Series and Capacitors in Parallel

A capacitor is a passive device which stores energy in an electric field and opposes the change in voltage. An electric field can be created by placing two conducting plates in parallel and having one plate more positive than other as shown in fig. The material between two plates is …

## RL Series Circuit Analysis

In this section, RL series circuit transient and steady state analysis will be discussed in detail. At time t=0, the switch in the above circuit is closed. At the instance of switch closure (t=0), a current i tends to flow. However, characteristic of an inductor is to oppose any instantaneous …

## Inductors in Series and Parallel | Energy Stored in Inductor

In this section, we will calculate an equivalent inductance of inductors in series and inductors in parallel. Inductors in Series The method for determining the total inductance of the following circuit is similar to that used for series resistors. According to Kirchhoff’s voltage law, we can write following equation for the …

## Mutual Inductance | Self Inductance

The electrical element which stores energy in the magnetic field in association with a flow of current is called an inductor.   The inductor can be classified according to the type of core and whether the inductor is fixed or variable. Some type of inductors is shown in the following …

## Superposition Theorem

Superposition theorem is stated as follows: The current is any circuit element or voltage across any element of a linear bilateral network is the algebraic sum of the currents or voltages separately produced by each source of energy. Simultaneous equations may be avoided in the solution of a complex network …

## Norton’s Theorem | Norton’s Equivalent Circuit

Norton’s Theorem states that: Suppose we are given an arbitrary circuit containing any or all of the following elements: resistors, voltage sources, current sources (the source can be dependent as well as independent). Let us identify a pair of nodes, say node a and b, such that the circuit can …