Definition: The response of current and voltage in a circuit immediately after a change in applied voltage is called the transient response. Refer to Figure 1. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC …

Read More »## AC Inductor Circuits

In an ac circuit, the applied voltage constantly varies and reverses polarity. Any inductance in the circuit will generate a counter emf, which will oppose the source voltage. This event can be observed by setting up the experiment. Connect a light to a six- volt dc source. Note its brilliance. …

Read More »## American Wire Gauge (AWG) System

Many conductors are much less than an inch in diameter. To simplify area calculations for such conductors, the foot-pound system uses an area unit, called a circular mil, based on a mil, or one-thousandth of an inch (see Figure 1). Definition: One circular mil (CM) is the area of a …

Read More »## Electrical Resistance Explained | Definition, Unit, Formula, Examples

Resistance Definition: It is the opposition to current and is symbolized by R. Its unit is the ohm, symbolized by the Greek letter Ω. A voltage applied to a conductor causes a net drift of free electrons along the length of the conductor. Repulsion from electrons entering the conductor from the circuit’s energy source …

Read More »## Voltage or Electric Potential Difference: Definition, Unit, Symbol, Examples

As we know that no current flows in a conductor unless a device (such as a battery) imparts energy to the free electrons. We say that the battery is the source of an electron-moving force or electromotive force, usually abbreviated to EMF. Electromotive force is a property that distinguishes an …

Read More »## What is Electric Current? Definition, Unit, Formula & Examples

An electric current is a flow of charged particles. In most circuits, these charged particles are free electrons. Although there is a free electron for each copper ion, Figure 1 shows only one of these free electrons so that we may trace its motion through the lattice. In Figure 1(a), …

Read More »## Basic Electrical Circuit: Theory, Components, Working, Diagram

A basic electrical circuit consists of three main components, a source of voltage, a load, and conductors. In Figure 1, a basic circuit is illustrated. This circuit consists of a battery as the source of electrical energy, a lamp as the electrical load, and two wires as the conductors connecting …

Read More »## How Does Static Electricity Work | Static Electricity Applications

Definition: The word static means at rest. Electricity can be at rest. The generation of static electricity can be demonstrated in many ways. When stroking the fur of a cat, you will notice that its fur is attracted to your hand as you bring your hand back over the cat. …

Read More »## Transient Response of Capacitor | RC Circuit: Time Constant & Transient Response

Definition: The response of current and voltage in a circuit immediately after a change in applied voltage is called the transient response. Refer to Figure 1. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC …

Read More »## Electrical Formulas Excel Sheet

This particular Electrical Formulas Excel Sheet will assist you to get a quick answer to the quantities related to the following topics: 1 – Basic Concepts of Electricity 2 – Electrical Quantities and Components 3 – OHM’s Law 4 – Series Circuits 5 – Parallel Circuits 6 – Series-Parallel Circuits …

Read More »## Inductors in AC and DC Circuits

The main action of an inductor is to resist a change in current. However, since the current in a DC circuit is constant, there is no induced voltage developed instantaneously across the inductor. The inductor does resist the initial inrush of current based on the time constant of the circuit. …

Read More »## Capacitors in AC and DC Circuits

Capacitors in DC Circuits When a capacitor is placed in a DC circuit that is closed (current is flowing) it begins to charge. Charging is when the voltage across the plates builds up quickly to equal the voltage source. Once a capacitor reaches its fully charged state, the current …

Read More »## Power in an AC Circuit

In an alternating-current circuit, power is dissipated in a resistor, but not in a pure inductor or a capacitor. Because the current in an RL circuit lags the supply voltage by an angle ϕ, the amount of useful power supplied to the circuit is proportional to Cosϕ. Similarly, in an …

Read More »## Conductors and Insulators Definition and Examples

Conductors carry electric current. Insulators protect conductors and protect people from conductors. Whether a material is a conductor or an insulator depends on its atoms and on the relationship of each atom to its surrounding atoms. Insulators may break down if subjected to excessive voltages. Similarly, conductors may be destroyed …

Read More »## Passive Components in AC Circuits with Equations

There are three key passive elements used in many electrical and electronic circuits such as: Resistor, Inductor, and Capacitor. All these three elements limit the current flow but in a dissimilar manner. Since passive elements exhaust energy, they cannot amplify the electrical signals power employed to them and will always …

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