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Basic Electrical

Ohm’s Law | Definition | Formula | Applications

Ohm’s Law Definition Ohm’s law states that the current in an electric circuit is proportional to the applied voltage and inversely proportional to its resistance. As the voltage increases in a circuit (resistance remaining constant), the current increases by the same amount. Hence, if the voltage is doubled, the current …

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Capacitive Reactance in AC Circuit

Capacitive Reactance The AC Current flow in a capacitor depends on the supply voltage and the capacitive reactance. The capacitance value and the supply frequency determine the capacitive reactance. The alternating current through a capacitor leads the capacitor terminal voltage by 90o as shown in the figure below. If a …

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Inductive Reactance in AC Circuit

Inductive Reactance Alternating current flow in an inductor depends on the applied voltage and on the inductive reactance of the inductor. The inductive reactance is proportional to the inductance value and the frequency of the alternating supply voltage. When an alternating voltage is applied to a pure inductance, the current …

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Electrical Formulas | Electrical Formulas Sheet

A Absolute Permittivity ${{\varepsilon }_{o}}=8.84*{{10}^{-12}}$ Active Power $\text{P=VICos(}\theta \text{) Watt}$ Apparent Power $\text{S=VI volt-amp}$ B C Capacitance $\text{C=}\frac{\text{ }\varepsilon {{\text{ }}_{\text{o}}}\text{ }\varepsilon {{\text{ }}_{\text{r}}}\text{A}}{\text{d}}$ Where, εo= Absolute Permittivity εr= Relative Permittivity A=Plates Area d= distance between plates Conductance $\text{Conductance}=\frac{1}{\text{Resistance}}=\frac{1}{\text{R}}$ Capacitive Reactance ${{\text{X}}_{\text{C}}}\text{=}\frac{1}{2\pi fC}$ Capacitive Susceptance ${{\text{B}}_{\text{C}}}\text{=}\frac{1}{{{\text{X}}_{\text{C}}}}$ Current in Series Circuit …

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Types of Resistors | Power Resistor

Power Wire-Wound resistor

Resistor An element used to reduce supply voltages to some desired value or to limit current. A resistor is a small component of two leads. A wide variety of resistors is used in the electronics industry today. Carbon composition resistor The carbon composition resistor is the basic mass-produced resistor of …

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Resistor Power Rating | Power resistor

Types of Power Wire-Wound Resistors

The physical size of a resistor is not determined by its resistance but by how much power, or heat, it can dissipate. It electric circuits, the unit of power is the watt (W), named in honor of James Watt. One watt is the power dissipated when one ampere flows under …

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Source Transformation Example Problems with Solutions

A highly valuable byproduct of Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorem is the technique of source transformation. Source transformation is based on the observation that if a Thevenin’s network and Norton’s network are both equivalent to a particular source network, then they must also equivalent to each other. This observation allows you …

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Voltage divider Circuits and Current divider Circuits

In analyzing a series circuit, it becomes necessary to find voltage drop across one or more of the resistances. A simple voltage drop relationship may be obtained by referring to the following figure. The total current is given by, $I=\frac{E}{{{R}_{1}}+{{R}_{2}}+{{R}_{3}}}$ And the voltage drop are given by, ${{V}_{1}}=I{{R}_{1}}=E\frac{{{R}_{1}}}{{{R}_{1}}+{{R}_{2}}+{{R}_{3}}}~~~~\text{  }~~~\left( 1 …

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Power Factor Correction using Capacitor Bank

Power Factor Improvement

Power factor Ideally, all the supply voltage and current should be converted into true power in a load. When this is not a case, a certain kind of inefficiency occurs. The ratio of true power to apparent power is called the power factor of the load, \[\begin{matrix}   Power\text{ }Factor=\frac{true\text{ }Power}{Apparent\text{ …

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Apparent, Active and Reactive Power

This section covers basic concepts about apparent, active (real) and reactive power which is important ingredients in the analysis of a power system. Consider the general single-phase circuit with a sinusoidal voltage $v={{V}_{m}}sin\left( wt \right)$ applied. A current $i={{I}_{m}}sin(wt\pm \theta )$  results and is leading (θ is positive) for a capacitive …

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Maximum Power Transfer Theorem

Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Definition Maximum power transfer theorem states that maximum power output is obtained when the load resistance RL is equal to Thevenin resistance Rth as seen from load Terminals. Fig.1: Maximum Power Transfer Theorem Any circuit or network may be represented by a Thevenin equivalent circuit.  The Thevenin …

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