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It covers articles related to single and three phase power.

Electrical Substation: Types & Components

electrical substation

Power transmission is the moving of electrical energy from the source to the end user. It includes the transmission substation and the distribution substation. The installation of new structures and facilities always raises public concerns that need to be addressed. Moving power is one of the issues accompanying renewable energy …

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Challenges in Smart Grid Implementation

smart grid implementation issues

The smart grid is defined as the electrical distribution technology that uses computer-based remote control and automation to improve the delivery efficiency of electricity. In this section, issues with the smart grid implementation are discussed. In the standard grid, information, and energy in the grid travel in one direction: from …

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Power Quality Issues in Renewable Energy Systems

power quality issues

The term power quality is a measure of the purity of the AC power, including the presence of unwanted harmonics and noise on the power line and the frequency. A harmonic is a frequency that is a whole-number multiple of another basic frequency. Harmonics on the power line are multiples of the power line …

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Comparison of Inverter and Non-Inverter AC Technology

The DC Inverter AC technology is the most recent advancement of innovation concerning the electromotors of the blowers. An Inverter is utilized to control the speed of the blower motor, in order to ceaselessly manage the temperature. The DC inverter units have a variable frequency drive that involves a flexible …

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Three Phase Power Measurement in Three Phase Circuits

Different methods are utilized in order to measure three-phase power in a three-phase circuit. In this particular article, we are going to discuss the following methods in detail: One Wattmeter Method Two Wattmeters Method Three Wattmeters Method A customer of a three-phase electrical service, three-wire or four-wire, will have a …

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Single & Three Phase Grounding

The National Electrical Code (NEC) defines “ground” as  “A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical circuit or equipment and the earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.” Single-Phase Grounding The grounding of a typical residential, single-phase service is represented in Figure …

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Protective Relaying Principles and Applications

The applications of the different types of protection systems for the protection of various types of equipment and transmission lines are described in this section. These discussions are confined to protection for the high-voltage, bulk-power system components. Generator Protection The protection system provided to the synchronous generator must be able …

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Swing Equation in Power System

Swing Equation The motion of a synchronous machine is governed by Newton’s law of rotation, which states that the product of the moment of inertia times the angular acceleration is equal to the net accelerating torque. Mathematically, this may be expressed as follows: $\begin{matrix}   J\alpha ={{T}_{a}}={{T}_{m}}-{{T}_{e}} & {} & \left( …

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Transient Stability in Power System

Power system stability refers to the ability of the various synchronous machines in the system to remain in synchronism or stay in step, with each other following a disturbance. Stability may be classified as steady-state, dynamic, or transient stability. Steady-state stability refers to the ability of the various machines to …

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Types of Protective Relays

The protective relay is the device that responds to signals from the transducers by quickly initiating or allowing a control action to be implemented in order to prevent damage to the faulted equipment and to restore service as soon as possible. The operating characteristics of the more commonly used protective …

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