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# Electronics

## How does an Oscilloscope Work

The oscilloscope is a test instrument that permits observation of waveform patterns representing voltages in an electronic circuit, Figure 1. It is a priceless service instrument. At first, the oscilloscope can appear to be a very complex instrument, but after a little familiarization, you will see that it is really …

## Transistor Characteristic Curves

A fundamental property of a transistor and how it works is pointed out in the following Figure, where a transistor is correctly biased by two power supplies. Figure: Transistor Working with Two Power Supplies  Figure 1 shows a simple circuit of a transistor, in which the 1.5 V battery and the …

## Band Pass and Band Stop (Notch) Filter | Circuit | Theory

The bandpass and notch (or band-stop) filters are designed to pass or block a specified range of frequencies. As a review, the primary frequencies are identified on the frequency response curves in Figure 1. As you can see, each of these filters has two cutoff frequencies, designated fC1 and fC2. …

## RC and RL High Pass Filter

As you know, a high pass filter is one that is designed to pass all frequencies above its cutoff frequency. High pass filters are formed by reversing the positions of the resistive and reactive components in the RC and RL low pass filters. In this section, we will discuss the …

## RC and RL Low Pass Filter

Simple RC and RL circuits can be used as low pass and high pass filters. In this section, we will look at RC and RL low pass filters. RC Low Pass Filters An RC circuit acts as a low pass filter when constructed as shown in Figure 1. In the …

## Microcontroller Components

The microcontroller consists of thousands of digital circuits. These digital circuits are combined into areas that provide specific functions. Examine Figure 1. The simplified block diagram illustrates how the major sections inside the microcontroller work together to process the program instructions. The components of the microcontroller are used to save …

A microcontroller is an integrated circuit (IC) that can be programmed to perform a set of functions to control a collection of electronic devices. Being programmable is what makes the microcontroller unique.  Often thought of as a “tiny computer” on a single chip, the microcontroller is used in many applications …

## Computer Design & Components | Data Storage Technologies

This article covers the computer’s physical design and components, as well as technologies relating to data storage and file formats. By becoming familiar with the computer’s components and technologies, you will have laid a foundation on which to build further knowledge, either in your studies as a PC technician or …

## Fiber-Optic Cable Splicing

Small fiber-optic systems can include all the cabling necessary for the system made by the supplier prior to installation. Measurements are made, and all cable splices and connections are prepared prior to installation. This type of installation ensures that the highest quality control standards were applied to the preparation of …

## Fiber Optics | Basics | Construction | Advantages

Fiber optics is a relatively recent development in the electronics world and has met widespread acceptance. Fiber optics, as it is used in the electronics field, is the controlled transmission of light as a signal. Look at Figure 1. The AM signal is converted to light and transmitted through the …

## Amplitude & Frequency Modulation | Theory | Definition

Modulation is a process in which an audio wave is combined or superimposed on a carrier wave. Amplitude Modulation (AM) Assume a radio transmitter is operating on a frequency of 1000 kHz. A musical tone of 1000 Hz is to be used for modulation. Refer to Figure 1. Using a …

## Radio Waves Frequency and Wavelength

Radio waves travel through space at a speed of light, which is 186,000 miles per second (300,000,000 meters per second). This is the velocity of a radio wave. Refer to Figure 1. The first radio wave has a frequency of one cycle per second (1 Hz). Starting at point A, …

For a basic understanding of radio and television operations, we will first look at a simple radio receiver. This radio receiver consists of very few parts, an antenna, a ground, a tank circuit, a diode, a filter, and a speaker or a set of headphones. Radio Receiver Working Principle In …