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# Electronics

## Half Wave & Full Wave Rectifier | Working Principle | Circuit Diagram

A rectifier is a device to convert AC electricity to DC. Except for batteries that are small sources of DC electricity, or the rechargeable ones that store electricity, most of the domestic devices that work with DC electricity use rectifiers. At the industrial level, there are industries that need DC …

## Diac & Triac | Basics | Characteristics Curve

Diac and triac are two devices, usually used together for current control in AC circuits. The names are made based on “diode for AC” and “triode for AC.” Although you now know about solid-state diode, the counterpart of that in vacuum tubes was also called diode; a tube with two …

## Zener Diode | Definition | Working Principle | Characteristics | Applications

Similar to the ordinary diode, there are other types of diodes that are commonly and frequently used in electronic circuits for industrial and domestic applications. One of these is the Zener diode. Definition The Zener diode is a special type of diode that is designed to work in reverse bias …

## Diode | Working Principle | Construction

Definition: A diode is the simplest semiconductor component. It is made of only two pieces from different semiconductor materials. Nonetheless, you may find diodes in almost all electronic circuits. Diode Working Principle Its function is to let electric current flow in one direction but to prevent flow in the opposite …

## Diode Characteristic Curve Explanation

A typical characteristic curve for a diode is shown in Figure 1. This curve shows the variation of the diode current versus the voltage across the diode. On the right-hand side of the vertical axis (the current axis), a diode is forward biased because the voltage applied across it is positive. …

## 741 Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) | Basics, Characteristics & Pin Configuration

One of the most commonly used integrated circuit chips today is the operational amplifier. The operational amplifier is often simply called the op-amp. 741 Operational Amplifier Characteristics The 741 op-amp is a near-perfect amplifier. It has a high input impedance and a low output impedance, which makes it an excellent …

## Integrated Circuit (IC) | Construction, History & Types

Definition: An integrated circuit, or IC, is a complete electronic circuit contained in one package, Figure 1. This package often includes transistors, diodes, resistors, and capacitors along with the connecting wiring and terminals. An IC is also called a chip. The transistor was invented in 1947 by Brattain, Bardeen, and …

## Common Emitter Amplifier: Working & Circuit Diagram

Amplifier Definition: An amplifier is an electronic device that uses a small input signal (voltage or current) to control a larger output signal. This principle works best when the output load, or impedance, of the circuit, is greater than the input load. Examine Figure 1. The input is a microphone …

## Transistor as an Amplifier: Working & Circuit | NPN Transistor Amplifier

Definition: An amplifier is an electronic circuit that uses a small input signal to control a larger output signal. In electronics, amplifiers have been used since the early twentieth century. Amplification can be accomplished using vacuum tubes or semiconductor devices such as transistors or integrated circuits. The amount of amplification …

## Field-Effect Transistor (FET) Types | JFET & MOSFET Construction

The major difference between bipolar junction transistor and field-effect transistor (FET) is that the BJT is a current device, and the FET is a voltage device. The current through the collector-emitter circuit of a BJT is controlled by the amount of current in the base-emitter circuit. A FET controls current …

## NPN Transistor Working Principle

The scientists John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the point-contact transistor. It had two wires carefully fused on a crystal of germanium. William Shockley followed these inventions by creating the bipolar, or junction, transistor. These inventions were the beginning of microelectronics. The transistor provided instant circuit operation and eliminated the …

## Half-Wave & Full-Wave Voltage Doubler: Working & Circuit Diagram

It assumed that the source of power is 117-volt ac found in homes and schools. The transformer is used to step up or step down the voltages required for the electronic circuits. Because transformers are heavy and costly, voltage multiplying circuits (voltage doublers) have been devised to raise voltages without …

## Power Supply: Definition, Functions & Components

Definition: A power supply is an electronic circuit designed to provide various ac and dc voltages for equipment operation. Proper operation of electronic equipment requires a number of source voltages. Low dc voltages are needed to operate ICs and transistors. High voltages are needed to operate CRTs and other devices. …

This article provides a brief introduction to PN junction diodes and BJT transistors. Doping Silicon: N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors PN junctions play an important role in semiconductor fabrication for integrated circuits. An undoped silicon with a valence of four has an intrinsic concentration of ${{n}_{i}}=1.1\times {{10}^{16}}\text{ }carriers/{{m}^{3}}$ at room temperature. …