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Diac & Triac | Basics | Characteristics Curve

Diac and triac are two devices, usually used together for current control in AC circuits. The names are made based on “diode for AC” and “triode for AC.” Although you now know about solid-state diode, the counterpart of that in vacuum tubes was also called diode; a tube with two …

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Diode | Working Principle | Construction

diode symbol

Definition: A diode is the simplest semiconductor component. It is made of only two pieces from different semiconductor materials. Nonetheless, you may find diodes in almost all electronic circuits. Diode Working Principle Its function is to let electric current flow in one direction but to prevent flow in the opposite …

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Diode Characteristic Curve Explanation

Diode Characteristic Curve

A typical characteristic curve for a diode is shown in Figure 1. This curve shows the variation of the diode current versus the voltage across the diode. On the right-hand side of the vertical axis (the current axis), a diode is forward biased because the voltage applied across it is positive. …

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Integrated Circuit (IC) | Construction, History & Types

integrated circuit definition

Definition: An integrated circuit, or IC, is a complete electronic circuit contained in one package, Figure 1. This package often includes transistors, diodes, resistors, and capacitors along with the connecting wiring and terminals. An IC is also called a chip. The transistor was invented in 1947 by Brattain, Bardeen, and …

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Common Emitter Amplifier: Working & Circuit Diagram

Common Emitter Amplifier

Amplifier Definition: An amplifier is an electronic device that uses a small input signal (voltage or current) to control a larger output signal. This principle works best when the output load, or impedance, of the circuit, is greater than the input load. Examine Figure 1. The input is a microphone …

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NPN Transistor Working Principle


The scientists John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the point-contact transistor. It had two wires carefully fused on a crystal of germanium. William Shockley followed these inventions by creating the bipolar, or junction, transistor. These inventions were the beginning of microelectronics. The transistor provided instant circuit operation and eliminated the …

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Power Supply: Definition, Functions & Components

Definition: A power supply is an electronic circuit designed to provide various ac and dc voltages for equipment operation. Proper operation of electronic equipment requires a number of source voltages. Low dc voltages are needed to operate ICs and transistors. High voltages are needed to operate CRTs and other devices. …

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PN Junction: Formation & Structure

In this section, the PN junction, which forms the basis of photovoltaic devices, is introduced. Silicon (Si) is the most common element used in the construction of photovoltaic solar cells. Recall that the addition of impurities to pure silicon (or other semiconductors) can change the conduction properties and form p …

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PN Junction Diodes and BJT Transistors: an Introduction

This article provides a brief introduction to PN junction diodes and BJT transistors. Doping Silicon: N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors PN junctions play an important role in semiconductor fabrication for integrated circuits. An undoped silicon with a valence of four has an intrinsic concentration of ${{n}_{i}}=1.1\times {{10}^{16}}\text{ }carriers/{{m}^{3}}$ at room temperature. …

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