**Ground**

A conductor providing either a common return path to the voltage source or a zero reference point, which makes it possible to obtain positive or negative voltages (with respect to ground) from the same power supply.

**Gauss-Seidel method**

An iterative technique for solving a set of nonlinear equations (e.g., the power ﬂow equations), which uses the latest values 0f the variables in seeking improved values of the other variables.

**Gauss’s law**

The integral over any closed surface of the normal component of the electric ﬂux density is equal in a rationalized system to the electric charge Q_{0} within the surface.

**Geometric mean distance**

The mean of (n) distances produced by taking the nth root of their product.

**Geometric mean radius**

The equivalent radius of a multi-stranded conductor.

**Ground wire**

A conductor usually suspended above but not necessarily over the line conductor for offering protection against lightning.

**Generator**

Devices which use electromagnetic induction to produce electrical energy.