A conductor providing either a common return path to the voltage source or a zero reference point, which makes it possible to obtain positive or negative voltages (with respect to ground) from the same power supply.
An iterative technique for solving a set of nonlinear equations (e.g., the power ﬂow equations), which uses the latest values 0f the variables in seeking improved values of the other variables.
The integral over any closed surface of the normal component of the electric ﬂux density is equal in a rationalized system to the electric charge Q0 within the surface.
Geometric mean distance
The mean of (n) distances produced by taking the nth root of their product.
Geometric mean radius
The equivalent radius of a multi-stranded conductor.
A conductor having grounding connections at intervals, which is suspended usually above but not necessarily over the line conductor to provide a degree of protection against lightning discharges.
Devices which use electromagnetic induction to produce electrical energy.