Electrical Components which need an external source to initiate the operation are known as active components such as Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR), Transistors, and Diodes.
Since a Diode is an active element so it needs an external source (either voltage or current) in order to initiate the operation. When the diode is linked with an electric circuit, it does not start conducting the current unless the source potential approaches to 0.5 V (for Germanium) or 0.7 V (for Silicon).
Electrical Components which do not need an external source to initiate the operation are known as passive components such as Inductor, Resistor, and Capacitor.
Since a Resistor is a passive element so it does not need an external source (either voltage or current) in order to initiate the operation. When the resistor is linked with an electric circuit with the supply voltage, it starts working without utilizing any particular voltage.
The key differences between Active Component and Passive Component are explained in this article on the basis of power consumption, operational requirements, gain, storage, power factor, linearity, and energy behavior.The following table explains the key Differences between Active Components and Passive Components in an electric circuit.
Difference between Active and Passive Components
Characteristics Active Component Passive Component
Power Delivers power to the circuit Employs power in the circuit
Elements Includes diodes, transistors, SCR, batteries, and cells Includes resistor, capacitor, inductor, transformer, transducer
Operational Requirements Requires external source to their operation Does not require any external source to their operation
Power gain Capable of providing power gain (just like an amplifier) Cannot provide any power gain
Energy Storage Cannot store the energy Can store the energy (in case of inductor and capacitor)
Energy behavior can be called as Energy Donor Can be called as Energy Acceptor
Current Flow Capable to control the current flow in the circuit Cannot control the current flow in the circut
Linearity Normally non-linear Fall under linear category mostly
Amplification They can amplify the signal because of having gain more than one They are not able to amplify the signal because of having gain less than one