## Relationship between Voltage Current and Resistance

The fundamental relationship between resistance, voltage, and current can be expressed using Ohm’s law. Mathematically, it is expressed as: $V=IR$ Where, V is measured in Volts I is measured in Amps R is measured in Ohms Electric Current The electric current is a measure of the rate of flow (i.e., …

## 741 Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp) | Basics, Characteristics & Pin Configuration

One of the most commonly used integrated circuit chips today is the operational amplifier. The operational amplifier is often simply called the op-amp. 741 Operational Amplifier Characteristics The 741 op-amp is a near-perfect amplifier. It has a high input impedance and a low output impedance, which makes it an excellent …

## Integrated Circuit (IC) | Construction, History & Types

Definition: An integrated circuit, or IC, is a complete electronic circuit contained in one package, Figure 1. This package often includes transistors, diodes, resistors, and capacitors along with the connecting wiring and terminals. An IC is also called a chip. The transistor was invented in 1947 by Brattain, Bardeen, and …

## Common Emitter Amplifier: Working & Circuit Diagram

Amplifier Definition: An amplifier is an electronic device that uses a small input signal (voltage or current) to control a larger output signal. This principle works best when the output load, or impedance, of the circuit, is greater than the input load. Examine Figure 1. The input is a microphone …

## Transistor as an Amplifier: Working & Circuit | NPN Transistor Amplifier

Definition: An amplifier is an electronic circuit that uses a small input signal to control a larger output signal. In electronics, amplifiers have been used since the early twentieth century. Amplification can be accomplished using vacuum tubes or semiconductor devices such as transistors or integrated circuits. The amount of amplification …

## Field-Effect Transistor (FET) Types | JFET & MOSFET Construction

The major difference between bipolar junction transistor and field-effect transistor (FET) is that the BJT is a current device, and the FET is a voltage device. The current through the collector-emitter circuit of a BJT is controlled by the amount of current in the base-emitter circuit. A FET controls current …

## NPN Transistor Working Principle

The scientists John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the point-contact transistor. It had two wires carefully fused on a crystal of germanium. William Shockley followed these inventions by creating the bipolar, or junction, transistor. These inventions were the beginning of microelectronics. The transistor provided instant circuit operation and eliminated the …

## Voltage Regulator: Working Principle & Circuit Diagram | Voltage Regulator in Power Supply

The output voltage of a power supply will usually decrease when a load is applied. This decrease is not good and needs to be minimized. The size of this decrease is measured in comparison to the no-load voltage. The voltage decrease under load compared to the power supply voltage with …

## Half-Wave & Full-Wave Voltage Doubler: Working & Circuit Diagram

It assumed that the source of power is 117-volt ac found in homes and schools. The transformer is used to step up or step down the voltages required for the electronic circuits. Because transformers are heavy and costly, voltage multiplying circuits (voltage doublers) have been devised to raise voltages without …

## Power Supply: Definition, Functions & Components

Definition: A power supply is an electronic circuit designed to provide various ac and dc voltages for equipment operation. Proper operation of electronic equipment requires a number of source voltages. Low dc voltages are needed to operate ICs and transistors. High voltages are needed to operate CRTs and other devices. …

## Semiconductor Diode: Theory, Types & Characteristics

Diode Definition: A diode is a device designed to permit electron flow in one direction and block flow from the other direction. A diode consists of two electrodes: a cathode and an anode. A cathode is an electrode that emits (gives off) electrons. An anode collects the electrons and puts …

## Semiconductor Basics Tutorial

Semiconductor Definition: Semiconductors are elements which have a conductivity between conductors and insulators. Semiconductors can be pure materials, such as silicon or germanium, or a combination of different materials such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide. In a doping technique, impurities are added to pure semiconductors making changes in the …

## Low Pass & High Pass Filter Working Principle

Inductance and capacitance are quite useful in electronic circuitry. One example of this usefulness is the filter. A filter is a circuit that separates specific frequencies. There are many filter designs. For example, filters can be designed to pass low frequencies and reject high frequencies; to reject low frequencies and …