## Solar Panel Data Sheet: Specification & Parameters

The most important solar panel specifications include the short-circuit current, the open-circuit voltage, the output voltage, current, and rated power at 1,000 W/m2 solar radiation, all measured under STC. Solar modules must also meet certain mechanical specifications to withstand wind, rain, and other weather conditions. An example of a solar module …

## Photovoltaic (PV) Cell Types | Monocrystalline, Polycrystalline, Thin Film Solar Panel

The three main types of photovoltaic (PV) cell include two types of crystalline semiconductors (Monocrystalline, Polycrystalline) and amorphous silicon thin film. These three types account for the most market share. Two other types of PV cells that do not rely on the PN junction are dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaic cell. …

## PN Junction: Formation & Structure

In this section, the PN junction, which forms the basis of photovoltaic devices, is introduced. Silicon (Si) is the most common element used in the construction of photovoltaic solar cells. Recall that the addition of impurities to pure silicon (or other semiconductors) can change the conduction properties and form p …

## Solenoid Problems and Solutions

Herein, we have covered several Solenoid related topics such as Electromagnets, Solenoid & its Characteristics, Solenoid Applications and their Troubleshooting in detail. Electromagnets Define the electromagnet and explain the left-hand rule. An electromagnet is a magnet whose magnetic energy is produced by the flow of electric current. The left-hand rule …

## Electrical Control Devices Questions Answers

Herein, we have covered several questions answers related to Pushbutton, Selector Switch, Joystick, Limit Switch, Foot Switch, Pressure Switch, Temperature Switch, and Level Switch in detail. Industrial Pushbuttons Describe the different parts of pushbuttons and their functions. Pushbuttons are the most common control switches used on industrial equipment. An industrial pushbutton …

## Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Questions Answers

Herein, we have covered several Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) related topics such as Basic Rules of Line Diagrams, Line Diagrams—Signals, Decisions, and Action, and Logic Functions in detail. Basic Rules of Line Diagrams State the basic rules that determine how and where two or more loads are connected into a control circuit. No …

## Electrical Instrumentation Questions and Answers

Herein, we have covered several Electrical instruments like Digital multimeter, Analog Multimeter, Clamp Meter, Megohmmeter, Oscilloscope, and Phase Sequence Indicator in detail. Safety Understand the stated rules for proper and safe use of hand and power tools. Tools should be kept in good working condition. Periodic inspection of tools helps …

## DC INVERTER AC TECHNOLOGY

The DC Inverter AC technology is the most recent advancement of innovation concerning the electromotors of the blowers. An Inverter is utilized to control the speed of the blower motor, in order to ceaselessly manage the temperature. The DC inverter units have a variable frequency drive that involves a flexible …

## Electrical Symbols and Diagrams Questions Answers

Language of Control Identify the differences between pictorial drawings, wiring diagrams, schematic diagrams, line diagrams, block diagrams, and flow charts. A pictorial drawing is a drawing that shows the length, height, and depth of an object in one view. Pictorial drawings show physical details of an object as seen by …

Herein, we have covered basic Electrical questions related to Electrical Theory, Electric Circuits, Magnetism, and Power in detail. Electrical Theory State the three fundamental parts of an atom and identify their states of charge. The three fundamental particles contained in atoms are protons, neutrons, and electrons. A proton is a …

## Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) Technologies

Concentrated solar power (CSP), also known as concentrating solar power, solar thermal power, or solar thermal electricity, uses glass mirrors of different architectures to collect the sun’s thermal energy and convert it into electrical energy. This is achieved via conventional thermodynamic power cycles that are adjusted to the specific needs of …

## Photovoltaic (PV) Cell: Working & Characteristics

Photovoltaic (PV) cells, or solar cells, are semiconductor devices that convert solar energy directly into DC electric energy. In the 1950s, PV cells were initially used for space applications to power satellites, but in the 1970s, they began also to be used for terrestrial applications. Today, PV cells are used …

## Electric Motor Failure Causes

Electric motors are highly effective and reliable drivers of machinery and other types of equipment. However, motors fail at times. Electric Motor manufacturers have found that overloading is the number one cause of motor failure. Thirty percent of all motors fail due to overloading. An Electric motor is overloaded anytime …

This article provides a brief introduction to PN junction diodes and BJT transistors. Doping Silicon: N-Type and P-Type Semiconductors PN junctions play an important role in semiconductor fabrication for integrated circuits. An undoped silicon with a valence of four has an intrinsic concentration of ${{n}_{i}}=1.1\times {{10}^{16}}\text{ }carriers/{{m}^{3}}$ at room temperature. …