Period and Frequency in Oscillations When a guitar string is plucked or a spring moves up and down, the time interval between each oscillation is defined as periodic motion. The time that one oscillation is completed is called the period. In addition to indicating repeated oscillations, a period can …

Read More »## Push Button Switch Types and Circuit Diagram

Industrial Push Buttons Push buttons, shown in figure 1, are the most common type of control devices found in industrial facilities. Almost all industrial machines contain push buttons even if the facilities operation is to set to run automatically. Typical push buttons are momentary meaning they are designed with a …

Read More »## What is Hooke’s Law | Definition Formula

Hooke’s Law Introduction There are many examples of things that oscillate. Oscillations refer to an object or system that moves back and forth between two points and creates waves. A guitar string vibrates back and forth when plucked; the oscillations of the cone inside an audio speaker makes it produce …

Read More »## Introduction to Physics Why is Physics Important

What is Physics Definition Physics is a branch of natural science that involves the study of matter, energy, and how they relate to each other over time and through space. This field investigates a broad range of phenomena in nature, such as understanding the structure of the atom and learning …

Read More »## Motor Starter Types | Motor Contactor Types | PLC Motor Control

Motor Contactors and Motor Starters are pilot devices used to control large current loads. Large current loads such as heaters, parking lot lights, and electric motors require a large amount of current during startup. To avoid exposing the operator and light-duty control devices, such as common household light switches to …

Read More »## Logic Functions PLC Motor Control

Control devices like push buttons, limit switches, and pressure switches are connected into a circuit to attain a logical function in a predetermined manner. All control circuits are basic logic functions or combinations of logic functions. Logic functions are common to all areas of industry. The subjects that utilize the …

Read More »## Difference between Electric field and Magnetic Field

An Electric field takes place where a voltage exists. They are produced around appliances and cables since a voltage exists. If the voltage is higher, an electric field is stronger and its strength is measured in volts per meter (V/m). The field strength diminishes quickly as we move away from …

Read More »## Analog Vs Digital Filter | Difference between Analog and Digital Filter

The primary difference between the analog and the digital filter is that a digital filter needs to sample the input signal (analog signal) and then convert it into binary numbers. These numbers are stacked (stored) as digital data in a system hard drive, treated, and manipulated digitally. On the other …

Read More »## Difference between DC Motor and DC Generator

DC motor and DC generator are similar from the mechanical perspective, however from a technical stand point, both differ from each other significantly. The most significant difference between DC motor and DC generator lies in the conversion mechanism. DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy whereas DC generator converts …

Read More »## Difference between Current Transformer and Potential Transformer

Current Transformer Current transformers (CT) are broadly employed in order to measure high magnitude currents. Such transformers basically step down (lower) the current which is to be measured, so that it can be measured with an average range ammeter. A CT generally possesses one or few primary turns. The primary …

Read More »## Effect of Zeros on System Response

The zeros zj of G(s) do not affect the system stability. However, they do affect the amplitudes of the mode functions in the system response and can block the transmission of certain input signals. In general, to assess the Impact of the zeros on the amplitude of the mode functions, …

Read More »## System Stability Analysis using MATLAB

Poles and Stability If pi is a pole of G(s), then the natural, or zero-input, the response of G(s) will consist of the mode functions epit if pi is distinct, and tq epit, q = 0, 1,. . ., r – 1, if pi has multiplicity r. Thus the natural …

Read More »## Zero State Response using Matlab

Response to a General Input In addition to computing and plotting the impulse and step responses of a system, MATLAB can be used to ﬁnd and display the response to general functions of time. This is done with the lsim command, which can be used in a variety of ways. …

Read More »## Unit Step Response | Matlab Transfer Function

Step Response The Laplace transform of a system’s unit step response is the product of the system’s transfer function G(s), and 1/s, the transform of the unit step function. The poles of the resulting transform are the poles of G(s) and a pole at s = 0 (due to the …

Read More »## Impulse Response due to Repeated Poles | Matlab

Time Response Due to Repeated Poles Up to this point the discussion has been restricted to distinct poles. Either real or complex. For a repeated pole there will be more than one term in the time response, with the number of terms depending on the multiplicity of the pole. For …

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