Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) KCL says that the algebraic sum of the currents arriving at and leaving any junction point is zero. Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) KVL states that the algebraic sum of all the voltage drops in a series circuit must equal the supply voltage.

Read More »## L

Lagging power factor An operating power factor condition such that the phasor current lags the phasor voltage. Leading power factor An operating power factor condition such that the phasor current leads the phasor voltage. Linear electromagnetic system An electromagnetic system whose flux linkages are expressed as linear combinations of the …

Read More »## M

Magnet A body that possesses the property of magnetism is called a magnet. Magnetism Magnetism is a property associated with materials that attract iron and iron alloys. Megohmmeter Megohmmeter commonly called a Megger®, is used to detect insulation failure within motors and transformers. Matter Any substance that has weight (mass) …

Read More »## Electrical Formulas | Electrical Formulas Sheet

A Absolute Permittivity ${{\varepsilon }_{o}}=8.84*{{10}^{-12}}$ Active Power $\text{P=VICos(}\theta \text{) Watt}$ Apparent Power $\text{S=VI volt-amp}$ B C Capacitance $\text{C=}\frac{\text{ }\varepsilon {{\text{ }}_{\text{o}}}\text{ }\varepsilon {{\text{ }}_{\text{r}}}\text{A}}{\text{d}}$ Where, εo= Absolute Permittivity εr= Relative Permittivity A=Plates Area d= distance between plates Conductance $\text{Conductance}=\frac{1}{\text{Resistance}}=\frac{1}{\text{R}}$ Capacitive Reactance ${{\text{X}}_{\text{C}}}\text{=}\frac{1}{2\pi fC}$ Capacitive Susceptance ${{\text{B}}_{\text{C}}}\text{=}\frac{1}{{{\text{X}}_{\text{C}}}}$ Current in Series Circuit …

Read More »## N

Nyquist criterion The Nyquist criterion is a frequency domain tool which is used in the study of stability. To use this criterion, the frequency response data of a system must be presented as a polar plot in which the magnitude and the phase angle are expressed as a function of …

Read More »## O

Open-Loop Control System An open loop system is characterized by the fact that the input signed is processed without being affected by the output. Oscilloscope Oscilloscope is most widely used to display amplitude and period of the signal as well as the shape of the wave Ohm The unit of …

Read More »## P

Permeability Permeability is the measure of the ease, with which magnetic lines of force pass through a given material. Proton A positively charged particle with considerable mass. Phase rotation meter Phase rotation meter is a device used to determine the phase order of a three-phase electrical system. Parallel Circuit In …

Read More »## Q

## R

Reluctance The opposition that a magnetic circuit presents to the passage of magnetic lines through it. Reactance The opposition to the flow of an alternating current by an inductive or capacitive element in the circuit. Resistance Resistance is defined as the measure of opposition to the motion of electrons due …

Read More »## S

SI unit SI units are most widely used units of measurement belong to an international system of units which is also known as SI or Metric System. Shunt A precision resistor connected in parallel with a current indicating meter for the purpose of bypassing a specific fraction of current around …

Read More »## T

Time Invariance In time invariant system, there are no changes in system structure as a function of a time t. Tesla The SI unit of magnetic flux density; equal to 1 Weber per square meter. Time Constant In a capacitor, the time required for a voltage to reach to 63.2 …

Read More »## U

Under-excited The operating condition of a synchronous machine absorbing reactive power.

Read More »## V

VFD Variable Frequency Drive – a technology where the rotational speed of an electric motor is controlled or varied electronically. VAR The unit for reactive power Q. Voltage Drop The voltage drop across a resistance is the product of current time’s resistance (IR). Voltage Source A two-terminal circuit element having …

Read More »## Factors Affecting Capacitance | Dielectric Constant

There are three main factors affecting the capacitance of the capacitors that will be discussed in this tutorial in detail. The SI unit of capacitance is farad, named in honor of the English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday. The unit symbol for the farad is F. capacitance is the ability …

Read More »## Wire Gauge Sizes | Circular mils

In order to compare the resistance and conductor sizes with each other, we need to establish a convenient unit. This unit is the mil-foot (mil-ft). A conductor will possess this unit size if having one mil (0.001 inches) diameter and a length of one foot. The standardized unit for wire …

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