State Space Representation and Example

RLC Electrical Network

The state space models derivation is not contrary to that of transfer functions in that the differential equations are written first in order to express the system dynamics.Generally, In transfer function models, these differential equations are transformed and variables are carried off between them in order to achieve the relation …

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Root Locus Method | Root Locus Matlab

Root Locus Matlab Example

what is Root Locus Consider as a standard form for root locus construction, the open-loop transfer function given by; \[GH(s)=K\frac{(s+{{z}_{1}})(s+{{z}_{2}})\cdots (s+{{z}_{z}})}{(s+{{p}_{1}})(s+{{p}_{2}})\cdots (s+{{p}_{p}})}\]   Where there are z finite zeros and p finite poles of GH(s). We write the characteristic equation for the system given below; Fig.1: Closed-Loop System \[\frac{C(s)}{R(s)}=\frac{G(s)}{1+G(s)H(s)}\] The …

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Nyquist Theorem | Nyquist Stability Criterion

Nyquist Criterion Definition The Nyquist criterion is a frequency domain tool which is used in the study of stability. To use this criterion, the frequency response data of a system must be presented as a polar plot in which the magnitude and the phase angle are expressed as a function …

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Signal Flow Graphs and Mason’s Gain Formula

Signal Flow Graph The application of mason’s gain formula to the signal flow graph corresponding to a given detailed block diagram is undoubtedly simplest operational procedure for obtaining the system transfer function. A signal flow graph is composed of various loops and one or more paths leading from an input …

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Block Diagram | Block Diagram in Control System

Summer Block Diagram

Block Diagram in Contol System By using block diagrams when examining larger systems, attention can be focused on a smaller number of elements or subsystems whose properties may already be known. By doing this, a set of individual blocks representing the various elements or subsystems is formed, and these blocks …

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First Order Control System | First Order System Example

Complete System response (natural and forced)

First Order Control System First Order System is the one that has only one independent energy storage element. The mathematical expression of first order system can be written in terms of a single variable and its derivative as $a\frac{dy}{dt}+by=f(t)\text{       (a)}$ The natural or un-driven response for above equation is given as …

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Feedback Control System Advantages and Disadvantages

Depending upon the process to be controlled and technical and economic considerations, either an open-loop or closed loop design may be preferable. However, a feedback control system is generally considered superior to an open-loop system. The following advantages are the fundamental reasons for using feedback. Many unnecessary disturbances and noise …

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Lyapunov Stability Analysis with Solved Examples

Lyapunov’s stability analysis technique is very common and dominant. The main deficiency, which severely limits its utilization, in reality, is the complication linked with the development of the Lyapunov function which is needed by the technique. The system dynamics must be described by a state-space model. It is a description …

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Steady State Error | Feedback Systems

Steady State Error High loop gains were shown advantageous to reduce the sensitivity to modeling accuracy, parameter variations, and disturbance inputs. They will now prove equally desirable from the point of view of the reduction of steady-state errors in feedback systems. Consider the unity feedback system in Figure 1. The …

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Laplace Transform Properties in Signal and Systems

The Laplace transform fulfills a number of properties that are quite valuable in various applications. In particular, by using these properties, it is possible to derive many new transform pairs from a basic set of pairs. In this tutorial, we state most fundamental properties of the Laplace transform. Linearity If …

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Laplace Transform:Introduction and Example

Laplace Transform Definition The Laplace transform X(s) is a complex-valued function of the complex variable s. In other words, given a complex number s, the value X(s) of the transform at the point s is, in general, a complex number. Given a function x (t) of the continuous-time variable t, …

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Z Transform Introduction | Z Transform Properties

INTRODUCTION TO Z-TRANSFORM  For the sake of analyzing continuous-time linear time-invariant (LTI) system, Laplace transformation is utilized. And z-transform is applied for the analysis of discrete-time LTI system.  Z-transform is fundamentally a numerical tool applied for a transition of a time domain into frequency domain and is a mathematical function …

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