Under-excited The operating condition of a synchronous machine absorbing reactive power.      

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VFD Variable Frequency Drive – a technology where the rotational speed of an electric motor is controlled or varied electronically. VAR The unit for reactive power Q. Voltage Drop The voltage drop across a resistance is the product of current time’s resistance (IR). Voltage Source A two-terminal circuit element having …

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Wire Gauge Sizes | Circular mils

In order to compare the resistance and conductor sizes with each other, we need to establish a convenient unit. This unit is the mil-foot (mil-ft). A conductor will possess this unit size if having one mil (0.001 inches) diameter and a length of one foot. The standardized unit for wire …

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Types of Resistors

Power Wire-Wound resistor

Resistors can be classified into different types according to their construction.  Wire-wound resistors are made by wrapping high-resistance wire around an insulated cylinder, as illustrated in Figure 1. This type of resistor is generally used in circuits that carry high currents. Large wire-wound resistors are called power resistors and range in size from ½ …

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Resistor Power Rating | Power resistor

Types of Power Wire-Wound Resistors

The physical size of a resistor is not determined by its resistance but by how much power, or heat, it can dissipate. It electric circuits, the unit of power is the watt (W), named in honor of James Watt. One watt is the power dissipated when one ampere flows under …

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Winding Capacitance                A side effect of inductors caused by multiple wraps of wire being in close proximity. Winding Resistance                The DC resistance of the wire making up the inductor. Wheatstone bridge Wheatstone bridge is used to measure unknown resistance Weber The SI unit of magnetic flux. Watt Power …

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Impedance Measurement Theory

AC Bridge Circuit

The opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of AC is called impedance. By measuring the voltage and current in an AC circuit and utilizing the following equation $Z={}^{V}/{}_{I}$ We can obtain the magnitude of circuit impedance. However, it is often desirable to separate impedance into resistive and reactive …

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Ohmmeter Basic Concepts and Working Principle

Ohmmeter Definition An ohmmeter is an instrument used to measure the resistance. It is an instrument containing a voltage source and a meter directly calibrated in ohms. Series Ohmmeter One type of ohmmeter is the series ohmmeter, so called because the meter movement is in series with the source of …

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Trigonometric Fourier Series Solved Examples

Saw-Tooth Wave Fourier Series

Why Fourier series? There are many functions that are important in engineering which are not sinusoids or exponentials. A few examples are square waves, saw-tooth waves, and triangular pulses. Indeed, a function may be represented by a set of data points and have no analytical representation given at all. In …

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Classification of Systems in Signals and Systems

Systems can be classified into following different categories in signals and systems because of their inherent properties: Order of the system Causal and non-causal systems Linear and Non-Linear Systems Fixed and Time-Varying Systems Lumped and Distributed parameter Systems Continuous-time and Discrete-time Systems Instantaneous and dynamic systems Before proceeding to more …

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Bode Plot Example | Bode Diagram Example MATLAB

First Order System Bode Plot

Bode Plot Example of First-Order System using Matlab In this article, Bode Plot of Simple Phase-Lag Network (First Order System) is obtained using Matlab. In order to draw Bode Plot, we need transfer function from which we deduce the equations for Magnitude and Phase. \[G(s)=\frac{1}{2s+1}\] Function in the frequency domain …

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Bode Plot MATLAB | Bode Plot Transfer Function

Bode Plot Definition H.W. Bode introduced a method to present the information of a polar plot of a transfer function GH(s), actually the frequency response GH (jω), as two plots with the angular frequency were at the common axis. The first plot shows the magnitude of the transfer function as …

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