## Electric Power Transmission & Distribution System

Infinite Grid The distribution grid is so large in comparison to most loads that it appears to be infinite, not only visually, but in most calculations as well. If a load took 100 A on each phase in a 400/230 V three-phase system, most apprentices would consider this a large …

## Iron Losses in AC Generator

An iron core onto which the coils are wound improves the voltage output by increasing the flux density, but causes two undesirable effects: eddy-current losses and hysteresis losses. Eddy-Current Losses Since iron is an electrical conductor, the rotation of an iron core within a magnetic field generates an EMF in …

## Electrical Phasor Diagrams

A vector is a line that, by its length and direction, represents the magnitude and angle of application of a force or velocity or other vector quantity. ‘Phasor’ is a term used to describe rotating vectors which appear in electrical calculations. Voltage and current phasors represent the RMS value of …

## Generation of an EMF in a Magnetic Field

Induced EMF Definition An EMF can be induced in a conductor if the conductor cuts across or is cut across by a magnetic field. That is to say,  when there is a relative movement between a conductor and a magnetic field, a current will be induced in the conductor if …

## Electromagnetic Relay | Construction | Types | Working

An electromagnetic relay is a switch operated by a magnetic coil. The relay switch consists of a solenoid that has a fixed iron core and a part which is movable. A spring is often used to provide the force to hold the movable portion (the armature) away from the fixed …

## Magnetic Hysteresis Loop including the B-H Curve

Hysteresis Loop Definition A curve, or loop, plotted on B-H coordinates showing how the magnetization of a ferromagnetic material varies when subjected to a periodically reversing magnetic field, is known as Hysteresis Loop or Magnetization Curve. The term ‘hysteresis’ means to lag behind. In electrical terminology it is used to describe the lag …

## IOS App Development Course for Beginners

This very comprehensive iOS App Development Course explores developing applications for iOS based devices such as iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad. This free online course will provide an overview of iOS development from use of current iOS SDK, to design of applications and industry business practices. Prior programming experience in …

## Circuit Breaker | Types | Operation | Characteristics

The primary function of a circuit breaker is protection, although it also provides a switching facility. It is widely used to provide protection in its own right, but may be used in conjunction with fuses, depending on the service duty required. Circuit Breaker Types The most commonly used circuit breaker for …

## Renewable Energy Sources Explained | Hydroelectric, Solar, Wind, & Wave Energy

Hydroelectric Energy Hydroelectric power stations, such as those used in the eastern states of Australia and in the South Island, New Zealand, use the kinetic energy of moving water to drive turbines. Hydroelectric generation is the fastest to respond to increasing power demands, reaching full power in two to three …

## Importance of Electrical Grounding

A fundamental safety principle of electrical installations is the protection of persons and livestock ‘against the danger that may arise from contact with exposed conductive parts which may become live under fault conditions. The principal method used is the automatic disconnection of the supply, of which the Earthing system is …

## Linux Tutorials for Beginners

This very comprehensive Linux online course covers the following tutorials for beginners: Introduction to Linux Operating System. Linux Installation, Basic Administration, Utilities And Commands, Upgrading, And Application Installation. Introduction to Scripting, Data Management, User Interfaces and Desktops, Essential System Services, Networking Fundamentals, Security And How They Function In Linux. Lesson …

## Electrolytic Corrosion

Electrolytic corrosion is created by contact between two different metals in a damp atmosphere with dust or pollution of a type that will dissolve in water. Precautions may have to be taken to ensure that the join between two different metals is kept dry. Dissimilar Metals The best-known effect of …

## Electrochemical Processes Explained

Electrochemical reaction, any process either caused or accompanied by the passage of an electric current and involving in most cases the transfer of electrons between two substances—one a solid and the other a liquid. Electrolysis Pure water is a very poor conductor of electricity, but if a small amount of an acid, alkali …

## Lead Acid Battery Vs. Lithium Ion Battery

Lithium Ion batteries are one of the most durable and reliable energy sources on the market and a drastic improvement over lead-acid in weight, capacity, and shelf life. Lithium Ion Batteries are the safest lithium chemistry with the highest cycle life and are compatible with most standard chargers. Lead acid …

## Series Circuit Characteristics

Simply defined a series circuit is a circuit that contains only one current path. For example, consider the circuits shown in Figure 1. In each case, the current generated by the voltage source has only one path, and that path contains all of the components in the circuit. In contrast, …