All electric circuits convert electric energy into some other form of energy, such as heat, light, or mechanical energy. For many of these energy conversions, it does not matter whether the energy source for the circuit produces direct current or alternating current. Therefore, we find equivalent steady-state values for alternating …

Read More »## Energy Stored in an Inductor

If we connect an ideal inductor to a voltage source having no internal resistance, the voltage across the inductance must remain equal to the applied voltage. Therefore, the current rises at a constant rate, as shown in Figure 1(b). The source supplies electrical energy to the ideal inductor at the …

Read More »## Resistance Measurement Methods

Low Resistance Measurement We can determine an unknown resistance in Figure 1 by applying Ohm’s law to the readings obtained from the voltmeter and ammeter. This method requires that the unknown resistance is connected into a special circuit with two separate meters. This method is useful for measuring very low …

Read More »## AC AC Power Converter

For AC-to-AC conversion the voltage and/or the frequency are the parameters that might need to be increased or decreased. For voltage only, a transformer can be used. But, for the frequency change, and for both frequency and voltage change, use of electronic converters becomes necessary. Unidirectional Back-to-Back Converters The key …

Read More »## Wind Turbine Parts and Functions

A wind turbine consists of five major and many auxiliary parts. The major parts are the tower, rotor, nacelle, generator, and foundation or base. Without all of these, a wind turbine cannot function. Foundation The foundation is under the ground for the onshore turbines; it cannot be seen because it …

Read More »## Number System and Base Conversion

The numbers we are familiar with and use every day are based on 10 symbols and rules for making and displaying all numbers, both positive and negative, from them. This system of numbers is the decimal system. Note that in the decimal system the base is 10; we have 10 …

Read More »## Variable Sampling

In the processes or machinery that are controlled by a microcontroller or microprocessor, all analog data must be converted to digital, so that it can be represented by binary numbers and be usable by the microprocessor. When a variable entity such as wind speed, car speed, or electric current in …

Read More »## One’s and Two’s Complement of Binary Number

For the analysis of practical applications, it is necessary to do mathematical operations on binary numbers. This is the basis of all that a microprocessor does. In this section, we study how two binary numbers are added, how one is subtracted from the other. We also discuss how the negative …

Read More »## Karnaugh Map Tutorial with Solved Examples | K-Map

An alternative to the truth table to determine and simplify the logic function for an application is Karnaugh map (K-Map), named after its originator Karnaugh. Karnaugh map abbreviates to K-map offers a simpler solution to find the logic function for applications with two, three, and four inputs. Its application to …

Read More »## Boolean Algebra Laws with Examples

The Boolean algebra is a set of specific rules that governs the mathematical relationships corresponding to the logic gates and their combinations. Their application is limited to two-valued (0 and 1) entries such as the inputs and outputs of logic gates. Dealing with one single gate and a pair of …

Read More »## Multiplexer and Demultiplexer

Multiplexer and demultiplexer are two devices very important in data communications. As the name implies, their functions are opposite to each other (similar to encoder and decoder). These devices are used for sharing a device between two or more applications. Consider, for instance, a decoder for seven-segment display. If we …

Read More »## Encoder and Decoder

Data can be stored in the form of binary numbers. Depending on the number of digits available, the magnitude of information stored changes, but more information can always be stored with less data. Having 4 bits of storage (say, four flip-flops), for example, offers the possibility of 24 = 16 …

Read More »## Flip-Flop in Digital Electronics

A flip-flop is the basic memory element for storing a bit of information. It is an edge-triggered device. That is, it reacts to the edge of a pulse. A simple flip-flop has two stable states (remember, for instance, that a capacitor has two states: charged and discharged). States are represented …

Read More »## Three Phase Transformer Connections

In this section, we’ll review the operating characteristics of basic delta-delta, wye-wye, delta-wye and wye-delta connections of the transformer. The construction of a three-phase transformer can be represented as shown in Figure 1. The shell type core has three sets of primary and secondary windings. How these windings are connected …

Read More »## Transistor Characteristic Curves

A fundamental property of a transistor and how it works is pointed out in the following Figure, where a transistor is correctly biased by two power supplies. Figure: Transistor Working with Two Power Supplies Figure 1 shows a simple circuit of a transistor, in which the 1.5 V battery and the …

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