Instantaneous Current in a Capacitor

Instantaneous Current in a Capacitor

If we connect a capacitor across a sine-wave voltage source, as in Figure 1, Kirchhoff’s voltage law requires the voltage across the capacitor to be exactly the same as the applied voltage at every instant. The voltage across a capacitor can change only if the capacitor charges or discharges. Consequently, …

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Periodic Wave

Radio Waves Frequency and Wavelength

Although the sine wave is by far the most important AC waveform, there are many other types of periodic waves. In electric circuits, a periodic wave is any time-varying quantity, such as voltage, current, or power that continually repeats exactly the same sequence of values with each cycle taking exactly …

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RMS Value of a Sine Wave

RMS Value of a Sine Wave

All electric circuits convert electric energy into some other form of energy, such as heat, light, or mechanical energy. For many of these energy conversions, it does not matter whether the energy source for the circuit produces direct current or alternating current. Therefore, we find equivalent steady-state values for alternating …

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Energy Stored in an Inductor

Energy Stored in an Inductor

If we connect an ideal inductor to a voltage source having no internal resistance, the voltage across the inductance must remain equal to the applied voltage. Therefore, the current rises at a constant rate, as shown in Figure 1(b). The source supplies electrical energy to the ideal inductor at the …

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Resistance Measurement Methods

Resistance Measurement Methods

Low Resistance Measurement We can determine an unknown resistance in Figure 1 by applying Ohm’s law to the readings obtained from the voltmeter and ammeter. This method requires that the unknown resistance is connected into a special circuit with two separate meters. This method is useful for measuring very low …

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AC AC Power Converter

AC AC Power Converter

For AC-to-AC conversion the voltage and/or the frequency are the parameters that might need to be increased or decreased. For voltage only, a transformer can be used. But, for the frequency change, and for both frequency and voltage change, use of electronic converters becomes necessary. Unidirectional Back-to-Back Converters The key …

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Wind Turbine Parts and Functions

Parts-inside-the-wind-turbine_W840

A wind turbine consists of five major and many auxiliary parts. The major parts are the tower, rotor, nacelle, generator, and foundation or base. Without all of these, a wind turbine cannot function. Foundation The foundation is under the ground for the onshore turbines; it cannot be seen because it …

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Number System and Base Conversion

The numbers we are familiar with and use every day are based on 10 symbols and rules for making and displaying all numbers, both positive and negative, from them. This system of numbers is the decimal system.  Note that in the decimal system the base is 10; we have 10 …

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Variable Sampling

Variable Sampling | Definition | Example

In the processes or machinery that are controlled by a microcontroller or microprocessor, all analog data must be converted to digital, so that it can be represented by binary numbers and be usable by the microprocessor. When a variable entity such as wind speed, car speed, or electric current in …

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Karnaugh Map Tutorial with Solved Examples | K-Map

Karnaugh Map Tutorial with Solved Examples

An alternative to the truth table to determine and simplify the logic function for an application is Karnaugh map (K-Map), named after its originator Karnaugh. Karnaugh map abbreviates to K-map offers a simpler solution to find the logic function for applications with two, three, and four inputs. Its application to …

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Boolean Algebra Laws with Examples

Boolean Algebra Laws Explained

The Boolean algebra is a set of specific rules that governs the mathematical relationships corresponding to the logic gates and their combinations. Their application is limited to two-valued (0 and 1) entries such as the inputs and outputs of logic gates. Dealing with one single gate and a pair of …

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Multiplexer and Demultiplexer

Multiplexer and demultiplexer are two devices very important in data communications. As the name implies, their functions are opposite to each other (similar to encoder and decoder). These devices are used for sharing a device between two or more applications. Consider, for instance, a decoder for seven-segment display. If we …

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Encoder and Decoder

Encoder and Decoder

Data can be stored in the form of binary numbers. Depending on the number of digits available, the magnitude of information stored changes, but more information can always be stored with less data. Having 4 bits of storage (say, four flip-flops), for example, offers the possibility of 24 = 16 …

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Flip-Flop in Digital Electronics

Flip-Flop in Digital Electronics

A flip-flop is the basic memory element for storing a bit of information. It is an edge-triggered device. That is, it reacts to the edge of a pulse. A simple flip-flop has two stable states (remember, for instance, that a capacitor has two states: charged and discharged). States are represented …

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