Number System and Base Conversion

The numbers we are familiar with and use every day are based on 10 symbols and rules for making and displaying all numbers, both positive and negative, from them. This system of numbers is the decimal system.  Note that in the decimal system the base is 10; we have 10 …

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Variable Sampling

Variable Sampling | Definition | Example

In the processes or machinery that are controlled by a microcontroller or microprocessor, all analog data must be converted to digital, so that it can be represented by binary numbers and be usable by the microprocessor. When a variable entity such as wind speed, car speed, or electric current in …

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One’s and Two’s Complement

One’s and Two’s Complement

For the analysis of practical applications, it is necessary to do mathematical operations on binary numbers. This is the basis of all that a microprocessor does. In this section, we study how two binary numbers are added, how one is subtracted from the other. We also discuss how the negative …

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Karnaugh Map Tutorial

Karnaugh Map Tutorial with Solved Examples

An alternative to the truth table to determine and simplify the logic function for an application is Karnaugh map (K-Map), named after its originator Karnaugh. Karnaugh map abbreviates to K-map offers a simpler solution to find the logic function for applications with two, three, and four inputs. Its application to …

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Boolean Algebra Laws with Examples

Boolean Algebra Laws Explained

The Boolean algebra is a set of specific rules that governs the mathematical relationships corresponding to the logic gates and their combinations. Their application is limited to two-valued (0 and 1) entries such as the inputs and outputs of logic gates. Dealing with one single gate and a pair of …

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Multiplexer and Demultiplexer

Multiplexer and demultiplexer are two devices very important in data communications. As the name implies, their functions are opposite to each other (similar to encoder and decoder). These devices are used for sharing a device between two or more applications. Consider, for instance, a decoder for seven-segment display. If we …

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Encoder and Decoder

Encoder and Decoder

Data can be stored in the form of binary numbers. Depending on the number of digits available, the magnitude of information stored changes, but more information can always be stored with less data. Having 4 bits of storage (say, four flip-flops), for example, offers the possibility of 24 = 16 …

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Flip-Flop in Digital Electronics

Flip-Flop in Digital Electronics

A flip-flop is the basic memory element for storing a bit of information. It is an edge-triggered device. That is, it reacts to the edge of a pulse. A simple flip-flop has two stable states (remember, for instance, that a capacitor has two states: charged and discharged). States are represented …

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Three Phase Transformer Connections

Delta-Wye Three Phase Transformer Phasor Diagram

In this section, we’ll review the operating characteristics of basic delta-delta, wye-wye, delta-wye and wye-delta connections of the transformer. The construction of a three-phase transformer can be represented as shown in Figure 1. The shell type core has three sets of primary and secondary windings. How these windings are connected …

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Transistor Characteristic Curves

Transistor Characteristic Curves

A fundamental property of a transistor and how it works is pointed out in the following Figure, where a transistor is correctly biased by two power supplies. Figure: Transistor Working with Two Power Supplies  Figure 1 shows a simple circuit of a transistor, in which the 1.5 V battery and the …

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Residential and Industrial Solar Energy Systems

Residential and Industrial Solar Energy Systems

Solar rays reach the Earth at various frequencies and contain light and heat. Solar energy, thus, may basically be utilized in two different ways: absorbing light and absorbing heat. Heat can be directly used for warming and heating, in addition to generating electricity, whereas absorbing light can only be useful when …

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Transmission Line Effects

Transmission Lines Effects

This section briefly describes matters concerned with transmission lines in electrical networks. Knowledge of the material described here is very useful for the technical personnel in electricity and its generation and distribution. Inductive and Capacitive Effect In addition to the ohmic resistance in the wires and electric conductors, conductors carrying …

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Fault Detection in Transmission Lines

Fault Detection in Transmission Lines | Grounding in Power System

Faults in an electric system can happen because of various reasons. Some faults in electrical distribution are due to natural causes such as lightning and are inevitable. Others can be due to deterioration of components as a result of age or abuse, and so on. What is important in operation …

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Electric Cable

Electrical_power_cable

Electric cables or conductors are basically of two types, but each type has numerous categories. Conductors are either for overhead transmission lines or for underground installation. Overhead conductors are bare wire and do not have insulation except at residential areas where contact with trees and other objects is possible, whereas underground …

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Transmission Lines and Substation Types

Transmission Lines and Substation Types

Transmission lines are used to transmit electrical energy over relatively long distances. There are three types of transmissions lines: overhead, underground and sub-transmission. Overhead Transmission Line Overhead transmission lines are used to transmit electrical energy in the form of three phases (3 AC. A basic transmission line system is represented …

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