Synchronous Generator: Performance and Analysis

Plot of power vs. power angle for a salient-pole synchronous generator

Most of the electricity we use on a daily basis is created by synchronous generators. Synchronous generators produce constant-frequency power and can operate at both leading and lagging power factors. Delivered power for the round-rotor machine From figure 1, we can write a voltage equation: $\begin{matrix}   {{E}_{a}}={{V}_{t}}+jI{{X}_{s}} & {} & …

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Synchronous Machine Equivalent Circuit

Per-phase synchronous machine equivalent circuit

In the Synchronous Machine section, we have seen that there are two rotating magnetic fields in the airgap of the synchronous machine whether it is operating as a motor or as a generator. Any time a magnetic field passes by a conductor, it will induce a voltage in the conductor. Thus, …

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Synchronous Generator Working Principle

In this section, we will describe the operation of the synchronous generator. Figure 1 shows a cross-section of a round-rotor synchronous generator, and Figure 2 shows a cross-section of a salient-pole synchronous generator. Both are two-pole synchronous generators. The primary difference between the two types is evident from looking at …

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SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR CONSTRUCTION

Cutaway view of a synchronous motor

The synchronous motor, like all other rotating motors, has a stator and a rotor. Figure 1 shows a cutaway view of a synchronous motor. The rotor contains electromagnets, which create the field of the motor. In some cases, permanent magnets are used on the rotor of a synchronous machine to …

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Pulse Width Modulated Inverter | PWM Inverter

Sinusoidal pulse-width-modulation

The Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) inverter offers the ability to change both the magnitude of the voltage and the frequency using a fixed DC voltage as the input. This means a diode rectifier can be used as the front end of the drive, which appears as a constant power factor load …

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Stepper Motor Types and Working

Stepper motors are close relatives of brushless DC motors. The brushless DC motor is used where continuous motion is required, such as a fan or a disk drive. The stepper motor, on the other hand, is designed to move infinite increments (steps) in either direction and to keep track of …

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Current Source Inverter Operation

Both the VVI and PWM are voltage-source inverters; i.e., they provide a voltage to the motor similar to what it would normally receive from the power system, except at variable frequency. Current Source Inverter Working A current- source inverter, on the other hand, acts as a constant current source to …

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Brushless DC Motor Working

A DC machine actually has an AC current in the armature that is rectified by the commutator and brushes. Brushes eventually wear out, requiring maintenance, and they produce carbon dust and possibly arcing while operating. Nevertheless, the characteristics of DC machines are often desirable. With the advances in power electronics, …

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Single-Phase Induction Motor Working

single phase induction motor

Figure 1 shows the cross-sectional view of a single-phase induction motor. Consider the motor in Figure 1 at standstill. Current is applied to the windings, establishing two counter-rotating waves. As they sweep past the rotor bars they both try to start the machine but they cancel each other out. Thus, …

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Important Magnetic Units, Terms, Symbols, and Formulas

The following table presents important Magnetic Units, Symbols, and Their Formulas as a reference, or source of information. These formulas play a key role while dealing with magnetic circuits such as Transformers, Inductors. Term or quantity Symbol or abbreviation SI Unit and Formula Flux (lines) ϕ \[Weber\text{ }\left( Wb \right)=\frac{number\text{ …

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Solar Energy System Cost

A general method of calculation will start from the load energy requirements; determine the local insolation level and the worst month insolation and from this determine the sizing of the storage capacity. From this follows the array power and area, the battery capacity, and eventually the voltage regulator size respectively, …

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Electric Machine Efficiency and Losses

Regardless of which type of electric machine is chosen for a particular job, efficiency is important for several reasons. First, and perhaps most obvious, a less efficient machine will cost more to operate. Second, the losses in the machine are converted to heat, which raises the operating temperature of the …

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