## Inductor and Capacitor Basics

The ideal resistor was a useful approximation of many practical electrical devices. However, in addition to resistance, which always dissipates energy, an electric circuit may also exhibit capacitance and inductance, which act to store and release energy, in the same way that an expansion tank and flywheel, respectively, act in …

## Phase Sequence in Three-Phase System

In a three-phase service supplied by an electrical utility company, all three line voltages have the same magnitude and are displaced from one another by 120°. We can measure the magnitude of these voltages quite readily. However, the magnitudes do not tell us whether VBN leads VAN by 120° or …

The two-phase alternator in Figure 1(a) has two identical loops mounted on the same rotor. Since both loops have the same number of turns and rotate at the same angular velocity, the voltages induced in them have the same magnitude and frequency. Loop A is mounted on the rotor 90° …

## Hybrid Parameters of Two Port Network

For analyzing circuits containing active devices such as transistors, it is more convenient to think of the input terminals of a four-terminal coupling network as a Thévenin-equivalent voltage source and the output terminals as a Norton-equivalent current source. We then describe the coupling network in terms of four hybrid parameters …

We can represent the generalized coupling network by the π-network shown with dotted lines in Figure 1. It is simpler to work with admittances when we encounter a coupling network in the form of a π-network, which is a dual for a T-network. Although the resulting short-circuit admittance parameters (y-parameters) …

## Open-Circuit Impedance Parameters

To define the composition of a four-terminal, two-port network, we need four parameters. The test circuit of Figure 1 gives a set of parameters called the open-circuit impedance parameters (z-parameters) of the network. Figure 1 Determining open-circuit impedance parameters We start by opening the right-hand switch in Figure 1 so …

## Impedance in Series and Parallel

Resistance and impedance both represent opposition to electric current. However, resistance opposes both direct and alternating current, while the reactance component of impedance opposes only changing current. Calculations for DC circuits can be done with scalar quantities and ordinary algebra. But impedance is a phasor quantity in AC circuits, and …

## Power Triangle and Power Factor in AC Circuits

Power Triangle The real power in the circuit of Figure 1 can be found from the product of VR and I, and the reactive power from the product of VL and I. Since VL leads VR by 90°, $\begin{matrix}{{V}_{T}}=\sqrt{V_{R}^{2}+V_{L}^{2}} & {} & \left( 1 \right) \\\end{matrix}$ Figure 1 AC circuit …

## Parallel Circuit Characteristics

Parallel Circuit Definition Resistors are said to be connected in parallel when the same voltage appears across every component. With different resistance values, different currents flow through each resistor. Resistance, Inductance, and Capacitance in Parallel Circuit The characteristic of a parallel circuit is that the same voltage appears across all parallel branches. We use …

## Phasor Diagram and Phasor Algebra used in AC Circuits

Figure 1 shows a simple AC series circuit containing resistance and inductance. The sine-wave voltage source causes a sine wave of current to flow in the circuit. Since all the components are connected in series, the current in the inductance and the current in the resistance must have the same …

## Instantaneous Current in an Ideal Inductor

In the circuit of Figure 1, we assume that the inductor has negligible resistance. To satisfy Kirchhoff’s voltage law, at every instant the inductive voltage across the coil in Figure 1 must exactly equal the applied voltage. Hence, ${{v}_{L}}=e={{E}_{m}}\sin \omega t$ Figure 1 Inductance in an ac circuit If …

## Instantaneous Current in a Capacitor

If we connect a capacitor across a sine-wave voltage source, as in Figure 1, Kirchhoff’s voltage law requires the voltage across the capacitor to be exactly the same as the applied voltage at every instant. The voltage across a capacitor can change only if the capacitor charges or discharges. Consequently, …

## Periodic Wave

Although the sine wave is by far the most important AC waveform, there are many other types of periodic waves. In electric circuits, a periodic wave is any time-varying quantity, such as voltage, current, or power that continually repeats exactly the same sequence of values with each cycle taking exactly …