An Electric field takes place where a voltage exists. They are produced around appliances and cables since a voltage exists. If the voltage is higher, an electric field is stronger and its strength is measured in volts per meter (V/m). The field strength diminishes quickly as we move away from the power source. They can be shielded by several physical objects, like trees or buildings.
In contrast, Magnetic fields are produced if there is a flow of current. As the current flow step-ups, the magnetic field strength goes up accordingly. Magnetic fields are measured in Gauss (or in smaller units like milli-Gauss).
This article covers the key differences between electric and magnetic field on the basis of isolation, polarity, laws to follow, distance relation, electric/magnetic field of lines, units, force, poles, and shielding effect.
Relation between Electric field and Magnetic Field
|Characteristics||Electric Field||Magnetic Field|
|Field generation||Electric field E caused by electric charges, either moving or stationary (produced by voltage)||Magnetic field B caused by moving electric charges and magnets (produced by current)|
|Isolation||Electric charges can be isolated||Magnetic poles, on the other side, cannot be isolated|
|Attract / Repel||Unlike charges behavior is "attract each other" whereas Like charges behavior is "repel each other"||Like poles behavior is "repel each other" whereas unlike poles behavior is "attract each other"|
|Polarity||+ and -||North and South|
|Laws||Follows Gauss’s law (if there is a symmetry)||Follows Ampere’s law (if there is a symmetry)|
|Distance (r) relation||Electric field is proportional to 1/r^2||Magnetic field is proportional to 1/r^2|
|Electric / Magnetic Lines of force||Electric lines start from a positive charge and terminate to a negative charge||Magnetic lines start from a North pole and terminate to a South pole.|
|Units||Electric field is measured in Newton per coulomb (N/C) or Volt per meter (V/m)||Magnetic field is measured in Gauss or Tesla|
|Force||Force is proportional to an electric charge||Force is proportional to charge and speed of charge|
|Pole||Monopole or Dipole||Dipole Only|
|Field shielding||Electric fields can be shielded easily by most materials such as trees, and buildings||Magnetic fields generally cannot be shielded easily|