# P

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## Permeability

Permeability is the measure of the ease, with which magnetic lines of force pass through a given material.

## Proton

A positively charged particle with considerable mass.

## Phase rotation meter

Phase rotation meter is a device used to determine the phase order of a three-phase electrical system.

## Parallel Circuit

In parallel circuits, the voltage drop V across each component remains same. However, the current through each element is different.

## Power Factor

Power factor is described as the ratio between active power and apparent power. Mathematically, it can be described as:

## Power

Power is the rate of doing work or the work per unit time. The unit of power is joule per second or watt.

## Period

The time duration of one complete cycle.

## PERMANENT MAGNET

Certain materials retain much of their magnetism long after an initial magnetizing force has been removed. These materials or bodies are called permanent magnet.

## POTENTIOMETER

A potentiometer or a rheostat is an instrument used to measure and compare potentials without drawing any current from the circuit.

## Printed Circuit Boards

Printed Circuit Boards are made of cooper-clad, epoxy-based material that has the wiring pattern etched on it to interconnect the various components.

## Phasor

Phasor is a complex quantity which expresses phase and amplitude of a sinusoid.

## Peak Value

The amplitude of a wave from the zero or reference axis to the maximum point in either direction.

## Pick-up

The action of a relay as it makes designated responses to a progressive increase of input.

## Pickup value

The minimum input that will cause a device to complete contact operation or similar designated action.

## Positive-sequence impedance

The quotient of that component of positive-sequence sinusoidal voltage that is due to the positive-sequence component of current, divided by the positive-sequence component of the current at the same frequency.

## Positive-sequence network

The equivalent representation of a power system constructed by using only the positive-sequence impedances of the various components.

## Power angle

The phase angle between the generated voltage phasor and the terminal voltage phasor.

## Power-angle characteristic

The expression for the real power developed by a synchronous machine in terms of its generated voltage, terminal voltage, synchronous reactance, and power angle.

## Power-angle curve

The plot of the power-angle characteristic of a synchronous machine.

## Power factor

The ratio of the average power in watts to the root-mean-square (RMS) volt-amperes.

## Power factor angle

The angle whose cosine is the power factor.

## Power ﬂow equations

The system of nonlinear algebraic equations relating the phasor bus voltages to the complex power Injections into the buses of the power system.

## Protective relay

An equipment which is utilized for detecting defective lines or other faulty conditions in a power system and to initiate a suitable control action.

## Pull-out torque

This is characterized as the peak sustained torque that the synchronous machine produces at synchronous speed while operating at rated voltage, frequency, and under normal excitation.

## Pilot Device

Some type of audio-visual indicator or a type of switching device used to control the flow of energy to a process

## PLC scan

The process the CPU goes through in order to execute a program.

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