The SI unit of capacitance is Farad, named in honor of the English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday. The unit symbol for the farad is F.


A protective device containing a special wire that melts when excessive current passes through it, thereby opening the circuit.


A selective network of inductors, resistors, and capacitors that offer little opposition to certain frequencies, while attenuating or blocking other frequencies.

Faraday’s law

The electromotive force induced is proportional to the time rate of change of magnetic flux linked with the circuit.

Fast-decoupled method

An iterative technique for solving the nonlinear power flow equations by separately and alternatively solving for the voltage angles and voltage magnitudes.


A physical condition that causes a device, a component, or an element to fail to perform in a required manner, for example, a short circuit, a broken Wire, or an intermittent connection.

Field energy

The energy stored in the magnetic field of an electromagnetic system.

Field winding

 A winding on either the rotating or stationary part of a machine whose core function is to produce the main electromagnetic field of the machine.

Flux Linkages

The sum of the fluxes linking the turns forming the coil.

Fuel Cells

Devices that use electrochemical energy to produce a dc voltage.


A number of cycles completed in one second, the unit is Hertz.

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