As we know that no current flows in a conductor unless a device (such as a battery) imparts energy to the free electrons. We say that the battery is the source of an electron-moving force or electromotive force, usually abbreviated to EMF. Electromotive force is a property that distinguishes an …

Read More »## What is Electric Current? Definition, Unit, Formula & Examples

An electric current is a flow of charged particles. In most circuits, these charged particles are free electrons. Although there is a free electron for each copper ion, Figure 1 shows only one of these free electrons so that we may trace its motion through the lattice. In Figure 1(a), …

Read More »## Basic Electrical Circuit: Theory, Components, Working, Diagram

A basic electrical circuit consists of three main components, a source of voltage, a load, and conductors. In Figure 1, a basic circuit is illustrated. This circuit consists of a battery as the source of electrical energy, a lamp as the electrical load, and two wires as the conductors connecting …

Read More »## How Does Static Electricity Work | Static Electricity Applications

Definition: The word static means at rest. Electricity can be at rest. The generation of static electricity can be demonstrated in many ways. When stroking the fur of a cat, you will notice that its fur is attracted to your hand as you bring your hand back over the cat. …

Read More »## Transient Response of Capacitor | RC Circuit: Time Constant & Transient Response

Definition: The response of current and voltage in a circuit immediately after a change in applied voltage is called the transient response. Refer to Figure 1. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC …

Read More »## Electrical Formulas Excel Sheet

This particular Electrical Formulas Excel Sheet will assist you to get a quick answer to the quantities related to the following topics: 1 – Basic Concepts of Electricity 2 – Electrical Quantities and Components 3 – OHM’s Law 4 – Series Circuits 5 – Parallel Circuits 6 – Series-Parallel Circuits …

Read More »## Inductors in AC and DC Circuits

The main action of an inductor is to resist a change in current. However, since the current in a DC circuit is constant, there is no induced voltage developed instantaneously across the inductor. The inductor does resist the initial inrush of current based on the time constant of the circuit. …

Read More »## Capacitors in AC and DC Circuits

Capacitors in DC Circuits When a capacitor is placed in a DC circuit that is closed (current is flowing) it begins to charge. Charging is when the voltage across the plates builds up quickly to equal the voltage source. Once a capacitor reaches its fully charged state, the current …

Read More »## Power in an AC Circuit

In an alternating-current circuit, power is dissipated in a resistor, but not in a pure inductor or a capacitor. Because the current in an RL circuit lags the supply voltage by an angle ϕ, the amount of useful power supplied to the circuit is proportional to Cosϕ. Similarly, in an …

Read More »## Conductors and Insulators Definition and Examples

Conductors carry electric current. Insulators protect conductors and protect people from conductors. Whether a material is a conductor or an insulator depends on its atoms and on the relationship of each atom to its surrounding atoms. Insulators may break down if subjected to excessive voltages. Similarly, conductors may be destroyed …

Read More »## Passive Components in AC Circuits with Equations

There are three key passive elements used in many electrical and electronic circuits such as: Resistor, Inductor, and Capacitor. All these three elements limit the current flow but in a dissimilar manner. Since passive elements exhaust energy, they cannot amplify the electrical signals power employed to them and will always …

Read More »## Series Parallel Circuit | Series Parallel Circuit Examples

Series-Parallel Circuit Definition Not all circuits are simple series or parallel arrangements. Many are combinations of parallel resistors connected in series with other resistors or combined with other parallel groups. These can be described as a series-parallel circuit. The simplest approach to analyzing a series-parallel circuit is to resolve each …

Read More »## Parallel Circuit Definition | Parallel Circuit Examples

Parallel Circuit Definition Resistors are said to be connected in parallel when the same voltage appears across every component. With different resistance values, different currents flow through each resistor. The total current taken from the supply is the sum of all the individual resistor currents. The equivalent resistance of a …

Read More »## Series Circuit Definition | Series Circuit Examples

Series Circuit Definition Resistors are stated to be in series configuration once they are linked in such a way that there is ONLY one path for current flow which means that the current stays the same in all parts of the series circuit. Series Circuit Characteristics The voltage drop across …

Read More »## Linearity in Circuits

Consider the relationship between voltage and current for a resistor (Ohm’s Law). Suppose that c current I1 (the excitation or input) is applied to a resistor, R. then the resulting voltage V1 (the response or output) is \[{{V}_{1}}={{I}_{1}}R\] Similarly, if I2 is applied to R, then V2=I2R results. But if …

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