The reaction of a circuit has to change in frequency is referred to as its Frequency Response. For example, consider the parallel RLC circuit shown in Figure 1. If the operating frequency of the circuit increases, Here’s what happens: • The reactance of the inductor increases because of XL=2πfL. The …

Read More »## AC Waveform & AC Circuit Theory

Generally, the term Alternating Current (AC) is used to describe any current that periodically changes direction. For example, take a look at the circuit current time relationship as shown in Figure 1. The horizontal axis of the graph is used to represent time (t). The vertical axis of the graph …

Read More »## Effect of Temperature on Resistance | Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

Checking the voltage/current (V/I) ratio of conductors at various temperatures shows that the resistance of most conducting materials increases linearly with temperature except at very hot or very cold temperatures. Temperature has little effect on the resistance of some alloys, such as constantan. For a few materials, including carbon and …

Read More »## Resonance in Series and Parallel RLC Circuit

In any AC circuit consisting of resistors, capacitors, and inductors, either in series or in parallel, a condition can happen in which the reactive power of the capacitors and of the inductors become equal. This condition is called resonance. Simultaneous with the capacitive reactive power and the inductive reactive power being …

Read More »## Phase Relationships in AC Circuits | Phase Difference | Phase Shift

Phase Difference When we have two sine waves with the same frequency, the duration of one cycle is the same for both. Nonetheless, irrespective of their peak values, there are two possibilities: 1. The two waveforms reach their maximum values (and accordingly their minimum values) at the same instant. In this …

Read More »## Relationship between Voltage Current and Resistance

The fundamental relationship between resistance, voltage, and current can be expressed using Ohm’s law. Mathematically, it is expressed as: $V=IR$ Where, V is measured in Volts I is measured in Amps R is measured in Ohms Electric Current The electric current is a measure of the rate of flow (i.e., …

Read More »## Semiconductor Diode: Theory, Types & Characteristics

Diode Definition: A diode is a device designed to permit electron flow in one direction and block flow from the other direction. A diode consists of two electrodes: a cathode and an anode. A cathode is an electrode that emits (gives off) electrons. An anode collects the electrons and puts …

Read More »## Semiconductor Basics Tutorial

Semiconductor Definition: Semiconductors are elements which have a conductivity between conductors and insulators. Semiconductors can be pure materials, such as silicon or germanium, or a combination of different materials such as gallium arsenide or cadmium selenide. In a doping technique, impurities are added to pure semiconductors making changes in the …

Read More »## Low Pass & High Pass Filter Working Principle

Inductance and capacitance are quite useful in electronic circuitry. One example of this usefulness is the filter. A filter is a circuit that separates specific frequencies. There are many filter designs. For example, filters can be designed to pass low frequencies and reject high frequencies; to reject low frequencies and …

Read More »## RLC Resonance, Acceptor, Tank & Rejector Circuit

RLC networks are ac circuits that have resistors, capacitors, and inductors placed in the circuit to pass, reject, or control current. A circuit containing all three factors—resistance, inductance, and capacitance—is called an RLC circuit. The resulting impedance in an RLC circuit is equal to the vector addition of R in …

Read More »## AC Capacitor Circuits

When an ac voltage is applied to a capacitor, the plates charge and discharge repeatedly. During the first half-cycle, the plates charge up (one plate negative and one plate positive) and discharge back to zero. During the next half-cycle, the plates charge to the opposite polarities of the first half …

Read More »## RC Circuit: Transient Response & Time Constant

Definition: The response of current and voltage in a circuit immediately after a change in applied voltage is called the transient response. Refer to Figure 1. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC …

Read More »## AC Inductor Circuits

In an ac circuit, the applied voltage constantly varies and reverses polarity. Any inductance in the circuit will generate a counter emf, which will oppose the source voltage. This event can be observed by setting up the experiment. Connect a light to a six- volt dc source. Note its brilliance. …

Read More »## American Wire Gauge (AWG) System

Many conductors are much less than an inch in diameter. To simplify area calculations for such conductors, the foot-pound system uses an area unit, called a circular mil, based on a mil, or one-thousandth of an inch (see Figure 1). Definition: One circular mil (CM) is the area of a …

Read More »## Electrical Resistance Explained | Definition, Unit, Formula, Examples

Resistance Definition: It is the opposition to current and is symbolized by R. Its unit is the ohm, symbolized by the Greek letter Ω. A voltage applied to a conductor causes a net drift of free electrons along the length of the conductor. Repulsion from electrons entering the conductor from the circuit’s energy source …

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