What is a Smart Grid | Components

What is a Smart Grid | Components

An electrical grid is a network that delivers electrical power from the power plants where it is generated to customers. See Figure 1. An electrical grid includes wires, substations, transformers, and switches. Definition: A smart grid is an electrical grid that uses computer-based remote control and automation to deliver electrical …

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Types of Cybersecurity Threats

Types of Cybersecurity Threats

Threats to cybersecurity originate from three sources: (1) local threats, (2) national threats, and (3) international threats. According to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), a cyberthreat “refers to persons who attempt unauthorized access to a control system device and/or network using a data communications pathway.” Cyber threats originate mainly from …

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What Is A Computer Worm & How Does It Work?

What Is A Computer Worm, And How Does It Work?

A computer worm “is a self-replicating virus that does not alter files but resides in active memory and duplicates itself.” Worms live and replicate within the operating system that is invisible to the computer user. Users typically encounter the worms when their computer starts to slow down substantially due to the …

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What is Cyberbullying? Types & Examples

What is Cyberbullying? Types & Examples

Cyberbullying is defined as “intentional, aggressive behavior toward another person that is performed through electronic means (i.e., computers, cell phones, PDAs).”  Cyberbullying, similar to traditional bullying, takes place within a larger group or community. Often, students are victimized in front of their entire class or school. Cyberbullying has similar negative …

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What Is Encryption & How Does It Work?

What Is Encryption & How Does It Work

Encryption is the obfuscation that is fast when you know the secret but very slow when you don’t. Encryption of data is still the most effective way to protect it from being stolen. It is also called cryptography. Even though the NSA has the capability to crack encrypted data, it is …

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What is Trojan Horse? Types & Risks

What is Trojan Horse? Types & Risks

A Trojan horse is a malware that is “disguised as, or embedded within, legitimate software. It is an executable file that will install itself and run automatically once it is downloaded.” Stated differently, a Trojan horse is a program that poses as a legitimate program but performs unknown or unwanted …

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What is a Computer Virus? Types & Risks

What is a Computer Virus? Types & Risks

A virus is a “small software program designed to spread from one computer to another and to interfere with computer operation.” A virus is a code that will duplicate itself into a host program when it is activated. Every company has at least one employee who will click on anything and …

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Overview of Cyberspace Intrusions

Overview of Cyberspace Intrusions

There are many ways that computer systems can be infiltrated and infected. Since the 1980s, when computer viruses became increasingly prevalent, companies have spent millions of dollars to protect their systems from malicious intrusions. Today, malicious software (malware) is readily available for purchase and/or download. This software is often designed …

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What Distinguishes Cyberspace, the Internet, and the World Wide Web?

What Distinguishes Cyberspace, the Internet, and the World Wide Web

Cyberspace is defined by the National Security Presidential Directive 54/Homeland Security Presidential Directive 23 as “The interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, and includes the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors and controllers in critical industries.”  In other words, cyberspace refers to the virtual environment in which people communicate …

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Ohms Law and Power in Electrical Circuits

Ohms Law and Power in Electrical Circuits

This module will enable readers to use Ohm’s Law and electric power formulas to determine the voltage, current, resistance and power in a basic DC circuit. Objective Learner will be able to: Use Ohm’s Law to determine voltage, current, or resistance Define Energy and Power Calculate Power in a basic …

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Electrical Elementary Diagrams

Electrical Elementary Diagrams

When the circuit components are either large, remote from each other, or numerous in a given electrical-power distribution system or control process drawing, the pictorial wiring diagram is an ineffective way to relay the required information. A different type of drawing, called the elementary diagram, which displays only the electrical …

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Circuit Breaker Types and Their Uses

types-of-circuit-breakers

Low-voltage circuit breakers are typically used in applications such as lighting circuits, motor control centers, feeder circuits and any application in which electrical power needs to be turned on and off and overcurrent protection is required. Medium-voltage circuit breakers are used in many of the same types of applications as …

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