## What is Fuse? | Types of Fuses and their Applications

Fuse is a component that allows current to pass under normal circumstances and opens automatically if the current exceeds a specified value. In some ways, a fuse is like a normally closed switch. A fuse is designed to allow current to pass under normal circumstances. However, unlike a normally closed …

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## How does an Oscilloscope Work

The oscilloscope is a test instrument that permits observation of waveform patterns representing voltages in an electronic circuit, Figure 1. It is a priceless service instrument. At first, the oscilloscope can appear to be a very complex instrument, but after a little familiarization, you will see that it is really …

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## Power Quality Problems in Power Distribution System

Correcting power quality problems requires an understanding of all power distribution system components and how a problem in one component can cause problems in other components. Distribution system components include transformers, distribution lines, switchboards, and panel boards, disconnects, circuit breakers, fuses, and receptacles to deliver, control, and protect the system. …

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## Fundamental Laws of Magnetism

Today, a magnet can be defined as a material or substance that has the power to attract iron, steel, and other magnetic materials. Through laboratory experiments, it was discovered that the greatest attractive force appeared at the ends of a magnet. These concentrations of magnetic force are called magnetic poles. …

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## Electric Current and Magnetism Relationship

During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, a great deal of research was directed toward discovering the link between electricity and magnetism. A Danish physicist, Hans Christian Oersted, discovered that a magnetic field existed around a conductor carrying an electric current. You can perform an experiment that shows the magnetic field …

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## Series Circuit Applications and Troubleshooting

There are numerous applications for the principles of series circuits. This section demonstrates how to apply those principles and shows you the specific example of an airfield lighting system. In addition, troubleshooting series circuits is discussed. Applying Ohm’s Law to a Series Circuit Ohm’s law can be applied to any …

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## Conductors, Insulators, and Semiconductors | Theory | Examples

All materials are classified according to their ability (or inability) to conduct as shown in Table 1. Table 1 Conductor, Insulator, and Semiconductor Characteristics A good example of a Conductor is copper. Copper wire (which is the most commonly used conductor) passes current with little opposition. A good example of …

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## What is a Smart Grid | Components

An electrical grid is a network that delivers electrical power from the power plants where it is generated to customers. See Figure 1. An electrical grid includes wires, substations, transformers, and switches. Definition: A smart grid is an electrical grid that uses computer-based remote control and automation to deliver electrical …

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## Types of Cybersecurity Threats

Threats to cybersecurity originate from three sources: (1) local threats, (2) national threats, and (3) international threats. According to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), a cyberthreat “refers to persons who attempt unauthorized access to a control system device and/or network using a data communications pathway.” Cyber threats originate mainly from …

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## What Is A Computer Worm & How Does It Work?

A computer worm “is a self-replicating virus that does not alter files but resides in active memory and duplicates itself.” Worms live and replicate within the operating system that is invisible to the computer user. Users typically encounter the worms when their computer starts to slow down substantially due to the …

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## What is Cyberbullying? Types & Examples

Cyberbullying is defined as “intentional, aggressive behavior toward another person that is performed through electronic means (i.e., computers, cell phones, PDAs).”  Cyberbullying, similar to traditional bullying, takes place within a larger group or community. Often, students are victimized in front of their entire class or school. Cyberbullying has similar negative …

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## What Is Encryption & How Does It Work?

Encryption is the obfuscation that is fast when you know the secret but very slow when you don’t. Encryption of data is still the most effective way to protect it from being stolen. It is also called cryptography. Even though the NSA has the capability to crack encrypted data, it is …

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## What is Trojan Horse? Types & Risks

A Trojan horse is a malware that is “disguised as, or embedded within, legitimate software. It is an executable file that will install itself and run automatically once it is downloaded.” Stated differently, a Trojan horse is a program that poses as a legitimate program but performs unknown or unwanted …

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## What is a Computer Virus? Types & Risks

A virus is a “small software program designed to spread from one computer to another and to interfere with computer operation.” A virus is a code that will duplicate itself into a host program when it is activated. Every company has at least one employee who will click on anything and …

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## Overview of Cyberspace Intrusions

There are many ways that computer systems can be infiltrated and infected. Since the 1980s, when computer viruses became increasingly prevalent, companies have spent millions of dollars to protect their systems from malicious intrusions. Today, malicious software (malware) is readily available for purchase and/or download. This software is often designed …

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