Three Phase Transformer Connections

Delta-Wye Three Phase Transformer Phasor Diagram

In this section, we’ll review the operating characteristics of basic delta-delta, wye-wye, delta-wye and wye-delta connections of the transformer. The construction of a three-phase transformer can be represented as shown in Figure 1. The shell type core has three sets of primary and secondary windings. How these windings are connected …

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Transistor Characteristic Curves

Transistor Characteristic Curves

A fundamental property of a transistor and how it works is pointed out in the following Figure, where a transistor is correctly biased by two power supplies. Figure: Transistor Working with Two Power Supplies  Figure 1 shows a simple circuit of a transistor, in which the 1.5 V battery and the …

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Residential and Industrial Solar Energy Systems

Residential and Industrial Solar Energy Systems

Solar rays reach the Earth at various frequencies and contain light and heat. Solar energy, thus, may basically be utilized in two different ways: absorbing light and absorbing heat. Heat can be directly used for warming and heating, in addition to generating electricity, whereas absorbing light can only be useful when …

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Transmission Line Effects

Transmission Lines Effects

This section briefly describes matters concerned with transmission lines in electrical networks. Knowledge of the material described here is very useful for the technical personnel in electricity and its generation and distribution. Inductive and Capacitive Effect In addition to the ohmic resistance in the wires and electric conductors, conductors carrying …

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Fault Detection in Transmission Lines

Fault Detection in Transmission Lines | Grounding in Power System

Faults in an electric system can happen because of various reasons. Some faults in electrical distribution are due to natural causes such as lightning and are inevitable. Others can be due to deterioration of components as a result of age or abuse, and so on. What is important in operation …

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Electric Cable

Electrical_power_cable

Electric cables or conductors are basically of two types, but each type has numerous categories. Conductors are either for overhead transmission lines or for underground installation. Overhead conductors are bare wire and do not have insulation except at residential areas where contact with trees and other objects is possible, whereas underground …

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Transmission Lines and Substation Types

Transmission Lines and Substation Types

Transmission lines are used to transmit electrical energy over relatively long distances. There are three types of transmissions lines: overhead, underground and sub-transmission. Overhead Transmission Line Overhead transmission lines are used to transmit electrical energy in the form of three phases (3 AC. A basic transmission line system is represented …

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How Do Power Plants Work?

How Do Power Plants Work?

The common theme of this topic is the concept of a prime mover (source of mechanical energy) driving a dynamo (alternator or generator) that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. Furthermore, we take a look at the basic working principle of common power generating plants. Hydroelectric Plants A Hydroelectric Plant …

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Distributed Generation

Distributed Generation | Technologies | Definition | Benefits

In this section, we look at small-scale power generation. As time goes on, you will encounter this approach to generating power, called distributed generation, more and more. Definition: Distribution Generation (DG) is the production of small-scale power near or at a customer’s site. Distributed generation has many potential benefits, such …

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Networking Devices and their Functions

Networking Devices and their Functions

Networking devices must be properly configured in order to communicate with other networking devices. For example, the annoying sound heard at the beginning of a fax transmission means that the two fax machines are agreeing on parameters for the transmission. Serial ports on PCs are used to connect to routers, …

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OSI Model Layers and its Functions

OSI Model Layers and its Functions

The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model is an industry-standard framework created and maintained by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). The OSI model was created to make network devices and network protocols interoperable. It allows components, such as hard drives and video cards, to function in a computer or network …

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Internet Connections Types

Internet Connections Types

There are many types of connections available for modern networks. Network connection types vary widely. Dial-up, broadband, cable, DSL, satellite, ISDN, and cellular (broadband wireless) are the main types of network connections which we describe. Ethernet Internet connections are becoming more common in homes and businesses, but are not described …

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What is Network Cabling

Network Cabling | Basics | Tools

In this lesson, the various types of network media are described along with the tools used in day-to-day network operations. Lesson Objectives Identify network cables and connectors. Categorize characteristics of connectors and cables. Identify the appropriate networking tools to use based on a given scenario. Network Media The network media …

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Network Types and Topologies

Network Types and Topologies

This lesson introduces computer networking. The types of networks and the types of network topologies are described. The role of a network administrator is explained. Network operating systems are described. Computer Networks A computer network is a collection of devices, including computers, connected together for the purpose of sharing data …

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Printer Types

Printer Types | Impact and Non-Impact Printer

In this lesson, printers are explored, with descriptions of each major printer type. The methods printers use to move paper are explained. And the maintenance techniques of cleaning and calibrating printers are described. Laser printer operation is described in some detail. Lesson Objectives Identify printer features. Identify the advantages and …

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