## AC Fundamentals Solved Problems

AC Fundamentals Questions What is the definition of a generator? A generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. What is the definition of an alternator? An AC generator is also called an alternator. With a six pole alternator spinning at 1200 rpm, what would the frequency …

## Solid State Timer | Solid State Relay Timer

Solid State Timer Solid State Timers come in many shapes and sizes. The most common timers used in industry: ON-delay solid-state timers and the OFF delay solid-state timers. ON Delay Timer Connection The on-delay solid-state timer relay is a two-piece device in which one part of the device is the …

## Time Delay Relay | ON Delay Timer | OFF Delay Timer

Time Delay Relay Some or all industrial control systems need timing operations. Timing devices are used to cut on or off pilot devices at a preset time. Time delay relays and solid-state timers similar and are used to provide the desired delay and timing functions. Timers are constructed with dials, …

## Parallel Circuit Definition | Parallel Circuit Examples

Parallel Circuit Definition Resistors are said to be connected in parallel when the same voltage appears across every component. With different resistance values, different currents flow through each resistor. The total current taken from the supply is the sum of all the individual resistor currents. The equivalent resistance of a …

## Series Circuit Definition | Series Circuit Examples

Series Circuit Definition  Resistors are stated to be in series configuration once they are linked in such a way that there is ONLY one path for current flow which means that the current stays the same in all parts of the series circuit. Series Circuit Characteristics  The voltage drop across …

## Difference between EMF and Potential Difference

The terminology ‘potential difference’ is a very comprehensive term and discovered in so many energy disciplines like electrical and magnetic fields, however, Electromotive Force (EMF) is solely used in the electric circuits. Though, both terms are measured in unit Volts (V), there are significant differences between them. Electromotive force (EMF) …

## Difference between Galvanic Cell and Electrolytic Cell

A galvanic cell is the one in which an oxidation-reduction chemical reaction occurs spontaneously to generate electrical energy. Chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. An electrolytic cell is the one in which electrolysis process takes place, a chemical compound is disintegrated by passing electricity through it. The chemical reaction …

## Proximity Sensor Working Principle | Inductive Proximity Sensor | Capacitive Proximity Sensor

Proximity Sensor Working Principle A proximity sensor is an electronic solid-state device used to indicate the presence of an object without making physical contact.  The proximity sensor is a very useful device in hazardous areas such as oil refineries and not so hazardous areas such as car door detection systems. Proximity …

## Physical Quantities and Units | Systems of Units

Physical quantities are values determined by making measurements or obtained by being calculated from other measurements.  An example of obtaining a value from a measurement is using an odometer or another measurement device to determine the distance a car travels or using a watch to determine how much time it …

## Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion

Period and Frequency in Oscillations                When a guitar string is plucked or a spring moves up and down, the time interval between each oscillation is defined as periodic motion. The time that one oscillation is completed is called the period. In addition to indicating repeated oscillations, a period can …

## Push Button Switch Types and Circuit Diagram

Industrial Push Buttons Push buttons, shown in figure 1, are the most common type of control devices found in industrial facilities. Almost all industrial machines contain push buttons even if the facilities operation is to set to run automatically. Typical push buttons are momentary meaning they are designed with a …

## What is Hooke’s Law | Definition Formula

Hooke’s Law Introduction There are many examples of things that oscillate. Oscillations refer to an object or system that moves back and forth between two points and creates waves.  A guitar string vibrates back and forth when plucked; the oscillations of the cone inside an audio speaker makes it produce …

## Introduction to Physics Why is Physics Important

What is Physics Definition Physics is a branch of natural science that involves the study of matter, energy, and how they relate to each other over time and through space.  This field investigates a broad range of phenomena in nature, such as understanding the structure of the atom and learning …