AC Fundamentals Solved Problems

AC Fundamentals Questions What is the definition of a generator? A generator is a machine which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. What is the definition of an alternator? An AC generator is also called an alternator. With a six pole alternator spinning at 1200 rpm, what would the frequency …

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Solid State Timer | Solid State Relay Timer

OFF Delay Pin Layout

Solid State Timer Solid State Timers come in many shapes and sizes. The most common timers used in industry: ON-delay solid-state timers and the OFF delay solid-state timers. ON Delay Timer Connection The on-delay solid-state timer relay is a two-piece device in which one part of the device is the …

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Time Delay Relay | ON Delay Timer | OFF Delay Timer

Normally Open Timed Closed (NOTC)

Time Delay Relay Some or all industrial control systems need timing operations. Timing devices are used to cut on or off pilot devices at a preset time. Time delay relays and solid-state timers similar and are used to provide the desired delay and timing functions. Timers are constructed with dials, …

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Parallel Circuit Definition | Parallel Circuit Examples

Circuit Diagram for Parallel Connected Resistors

Parallel Circuit Definition Resistors are said to be connected in parallel when the same voltage appears across every component. With different resistance values, different currents flow through each resistor. The total current taken from the supply is the sum of all the individual resistor currents. The equivalent resistance of a …

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Difference between EMF and Potential Difference

The terminology ‘potential difference’ is a very comprehensive term and discovered in so many energy disciplines like electrical and magnetic fields, however, Electromotive Force (EMF) is solely used in the electric circuits. Though, both terms are measured in unit Volts (V), there are significant differences between them. Electromotive force (EMF) …

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Difference between Galvanic Cell and Electrolytic Cell

A galvanic cell is the one in which an oxidation-reduction chemical reaction occurs spontaneously to generate electrical energy. Chemical energy is converted into electrical energy. An electrolytic cell is the one in which electrolysis process takes place, a chemical compound is disintegrated by passing electricity through it. The chemical reaction …

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Physical Quantities and Units | Systems of Units

Physical quantities are values determined by making measurements or obtained by being calculated from other measurements.  An example of obtaining a value from a measurement is using an odometer or another measurement device to determine the distance a car travels or using a watch to determine how much time it …

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Simple Harmonic Motion and Uniform Circular Motion

Period and Frequency in Oscillations                When a guitar string is plucked or a spring moves up and down, the time interval between each oscillation is defined as periodic motion. The time that one oscillation is completed is called the period. In addition to indicating repeated oscillations, a period can …

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Push Button Switch Types and Circuit Diagram

Industrial Push Buttons Push buttons, shown in figure 1, are the most common type of control devices found in industrial facilities. Almost all industrial machines contain push buttons even if the facilities operation is to set to run automatically. Typical push buttons are momentary meaning they are designed with a …

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What is Hooke’s Law | Definition Formula

Hooke’s Law Introduction There are many examples of things that oscillate. Oscillations refer to an object or system that moves back and forth between two points and creates waves.  A guitar string vibrates back and forth when plucked; the oscillations of the cone inside an audio speaker makes it produce …

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Logic Functions PLC Motor Control

PLC OR logic

Control devices like push buttons, limit switches, and pressure switches are connected into a circuit to attain a logical function in a predetermined manner. All control circuits are basic logic functions or combinations of logic functions. Logic functions are common to all areas of industry. The subjects that utilize the …

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