Normally, complex circuits are not organized in a nice and clean way for us to follow. They’re oftentimes represented in a way that makes it impossible to recognize which components are connected in parallel and which are in series. The core intent of this tutorial is to show that how …

Read More »## Phase Rotation Meter | Phase Sequence Indicator

A phase rotation meter, as shown in figure 1, is a device used to determine the phase order of a three-phase electrical system. In electrical system that contains three phases, AØ, BØ, and CØ, it is important to know the order before a motor or generator is mechanically connected to …

Read More »## Digital Multimeter Working Principle

Fig.1: Digital Multimeter There are two main types of multimeters. One of the first and oldest multimeters is the analog meter, (Figure 2) and the other, now more widely used meter is the digital multimeter (Figure 1). Fig.2: Analog Multimeter Analog Multimeter Analog meters are a multifunctional multimeter that …

Read More »## Fourier Transform and Inverse Fourier Transform with Examples and Solutions

WHY Fourier Transform? If a function f (t) is not a periodic and is defined on an infinite interval, we cannot represent it by Fourier series. It may be possible, however, to consider the function to be periodic with an infinite period. In this section we shall consider this case …

Read More »## Exponential Fourier Series with Solved Example

Replacing the sinusoidal terms in the trigonometric Fourier series by the exponential equivalents, $\cos (n{{\omega }_{o}}t)=\frac{1}{2}({{e}^{jn{{\omega }_{o}}t}}+{{e}^{-jn{{\omega }_{o}}t}})$ And $\sin (n{{\omega }_{o}}t)=\frac{1}{j2}({{e}^{jn{{\omega }_{o}}t}}-{{e}^{-jn{{\omega }_{o}}t}})$ Now, let us put the above exponential equivalents in the trigonometric Fourier series and get the Exponential Fourier Series expression: You May Also Read: Fourier Transform and …

Read More »## Equivalent Resistance Calculation in a Complex Circuit Using Matlab

Determine the equivalent resistance of the circuit between points A and B. As we can see from above circuit that R1+R2 is connected in parallel fashion with R5 as well as with R3+R4. So, let’s write a code in Matlab in order to calculate an equivalent resistance across terminals A …

Read More »## Current Through a Capacitor | Matlab

We can define the relationship between capacitor’s voltage and current as the amount of current flows through a capacitor depends on two factors: the capacitance and how rapidly the voltage is either ascending or descending. If the voltage goes up quickly, a large amount of current rushes through the capacitor. …

Read More »## How to Find Node Voltage in a Bridge Circuit | Matlab

A voltage node is typically a conjunction in an electric circuit at which an electric potential can be calculated with respect to some other (reference) node. if one point in the circuit is grounded, that point is generally selected as the reference node. Otherwise, any convenient junction can be treated …

Read More »## How to Find Node Voltage in an AC Circuit | Matlab

For Nodal Analysis, the voltage at each node (or junction in the circuit) is identified with respect to ground (node zero). then, circuit equations are written to determine the node voltage. In this tutorial, we will calculate node voltages for the following circuit using Matlab. Determine the voltage at each …

Read More »## Calculating Voltage in an AC Circuit | Matlab

In this tutorial, we will determine the voltages at each node of the following circuit using Matlab. Determine the voltage at each node of the circuit of figure: The impedances correspond to an inductor and capacitor in the above circuit can be obtained using the following expressions: $\begin{align} & {{Z}_{C}}={{\left. …

Read More »## Dynamometer Type Wattmeter Working Principle | Electrodynamometer

In a dc circuit, the power supplied to a load can be determined by measuring the load voltage and current and multiplying them together: P=EI However, it is much more convenient to have an instrument that indicates power directly. The meter used for this purpose is called a wattmeter, and …

Read More »## Megohmmeter Working Principle | Megger Working Principle

A high voltage source is required to pass a measurable current through such resistances. Thus, the megger is essentially an ohmmeter with a sensitive deflection instrument and a high voltage source. As illustrated in figure (1), the voltage is usually produced by a hand-cranked generator. The generated voltage may …

Read More »## PMMC Instrument Working Principle | Permanent Magnet Moving Coil Instrument

Figure 1 shows the basic construction of a PMMC instrument. A moving-coil instrument contains principally of a permanent magnet to offer a magnetic field and a small lightweight coil pivoted within the field. A soft iron core is included between the poles of the magnet so that the coil …

Read More »## Sinusoidal Waveform or Sine Wave in Electricity

Because of the importance of sinusoidal functions, I will devote this section to a review of some of their properties. Let us being with the sine wave, $\begin{matrix} v(t)={{V}_{m}}\sin (\omega t) & \cdots & (1) \\\end{matrix}$ Which is sketched in figure (1). The amplitude of the sinusoid is Vm, which …

Read More »## Electric Current | Unit of Electric Current

The primary purpose of an electric current is to move or transfer charges along specified paths. This motion of charges constitutes an electric current, denoted by the letters i or I, taken from the French word “intensite”. Formally, The basic unit of current is the ampere (A), named after …

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