Capacitive Reactance The AC Current flow in a capacitor depends on the supply voltage and the capacitive reactance. The capacitance value and the supply frequency determine the capacitive reactance. The alternating current through a capacitor leads the capacitor terminal voltage by 90o as shown in the figure below. If a …

Read More »## Inductive Reactance in AC Circuit

Inductive Reactance Alternating current flow in an inductor depends on the applied voltage and on the inductive reactance of the inductor. The inductive reactance is proportional to the inductance value and the frequency of the alternating supply voltage. When an alternating voltage is applied to a pure inductance, the current …

Read More »## D

Discrete Time System When the time variable t takes on the discrete values t=kT, k=…,-2,-1, 0, 1, 2… the system is said to be discrete – time system. Dependent Sources Voltage or current source whose value linearly depends upon the value of voltage or current of other elements in the …

Read More »## E

Electromagnet An electromagnet is composed of a coil of wire wound around a core of a soft iron. Electron A negatively charged subatomic particle with much less mass than a proton but with a charge equal and opposite to the charge of a proton. Energy Energy is the capacity to …

Read More »## F

Farad The SI unit of capacitance is Farad, named in honor of the English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday. The unit symbol for the farad is F. Fuse A protective device containing a special wire that melts when excessive current passes through it, thereby opening the circuit. Filter A selective …

Read More »## G

Ground A conductor providing either a common return path to the voltage source or a zero reference point, which makes it possible to obtain positive or negative voltages (with respect to ground) from the same power supply. Gauss-Seidel method An iterative technique for solving a set of nonlinear equations (e.g., …

Read More »## H

Horse Power (HP) Horse Power is a measure of the work output of a motor (electrical or otherwise). The conversion from HP to watts is 1 HP = 746 Watts (Imperial Units). Hertz The SI unit of frequency; equal to one cycle per second. Henry The SI unit of inductance …

Read More »## I

Ideal transformer A transformer characterized by no winding resistance, no leakage ﬂux, and a lossless and inﬁnitely permeable magnetic core. Identity, or unit, matrix A diagonal matrix whose elements in the principal diagonal are all equal to unity and all elements not in the principal diagonal are equal to zero. …

Read More »## J

Joule (j) The SI unit of work.

Read More »## K

Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) KCL says that the algebraic sum of the currents arriving at and leaving any junction point is zero. Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) KVL states that the algebraic sum of all the voltage drops in a series circuit must equal the supply voltage.

Read More »## L

Lagging power factor An operating power factor condition such that the phasor current lags the phasor voltage. Leading power factor An operating power factor condition such that the phasor current leads the phasor voltage. Linear electromagnetic system An electromagnetic system whose flux linkages are expressed as linear combinations of the …

Read More »## M

Magnet A body that possesses the property of magnetism is called a magnet. Magnetism Magnetism is a property associated with materials that attract iron and iron alloys. Megohmmeter Megohmmeter commonly called a Megger®, is used to detect insulation failure within motors and transformers. Matter Any substance that has weight (mass) …

Read More »## Electrical Formulas | Electrical Formulas Sheet

A Absolute Permittivity ${{\varepsilon }_{o}}=8.84*{{10}^{-12}}$ Active Power $\text{P=VICos(}\theta \text{) Watt}$ Apparent Power $\text{S=VI volt-amp}$ B C Capacitance $\text{C=}\frac{\text{ }\varepsilon {{\text{ }}_{\text{o}}}\text{ }\varepsilon {{\text{ }}_{\text{r}}}\text{A}}{\text{d}}$ Where, εo= Absolute Permittivity εr= Relative Permittivity A=Plates Area d= distance between plates Conductance $\text{Conductance}=\frac{1}{\text{Resistance}}=\frac{1}{\text{R}}$ Capacitive Reactance ${{\text{X}}_{\text{C}}}\text{=}\frac{1}{2\pi fC}$ Capacitive Susceptance ${{\text{B}}_{\text{C}}}\text{=}\frac{1}{{{\text{X}}_{\text{C}}}}$ Current in Series Circuit …

Read More »## N

Nyquist criterion The Nyquist criterion is a frequency domain tool which is used in the study of stability. To use this criterion, the frequency response data of a system must be presented as a polar plot in which the magnitude and the phase angle are expressed as a function of …

Read More »## O

Open-Loop Control System An open loop system is characterized by the fact that the input signed is processed without being affected by the output. Oscilloscope Oscilloscope is most widely used to display amplitude and period of the signal as well as the shape of the wave Ohm The unit of …

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