## What is Electric Current? Definition, Unit, Formula & Examples

An electric current is a flow of charged particles. In most circuits, these charged particles are free electrons. Although there is a free electron for each copper ion, Figure 1 shows only one of these free electrons so that we may trace its motion through the lattice. In Figure 1(a), …

## Volt-Ohm-Milliammeter (VOM): Definition, Functions & Types

Definition: A common and simple multimeter used in electronic circuits is the volt-ohm-milliammeter or VOM. A VOM is a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter, all in one. The VOM has the advantages of being inexpensive and portable. It does, however, usually have a low input resistance (in ohms per volt) on …

## Analog Meter Movement | D’Arsonval & Iron Vane Meter Movement

A common type of meter movement measures current and voltage. It is the D’Arsonval movement, or stationary magnet, moving-coil galvanometer, Figure 1. The movement consists of a permanent-type magnet and a rotating coil in the magnetic field. An indicating needle is attached to the rotating coil, Figure 2. Figure 1. …

## Basic Electrical Circuit: Theory, Components, Working, Diagram

A basic electrical circuit consists of three main components, a source of voltage, a load, and conductors. In Figure 1, a basic circuit is illustrated. This circuit consists of a battery as the source of electrical energy, a lamp as the electrical load, and two wires as the conductors connecting …

## How Does Static Electricity Work | Static Electricity Applications

Definition: The word static means at rest. Electricity can be at rest. The generation of static electricity can be demonstrated in many ways. When stroking the fur of a cat, you will notice that its fur is attracted to your hand as you bring your hand back over the cat. …

## Short-Circuit Calculation and Interrupting Capacity

Electrical circuits are designed to allow a limited amount of current to flow through; this is done to prevent overheating of the wires due to I2R losses. The limitation on the current is largely due to the resistance or impedance of the load to which it is connected. Short Circuit …

## Transient Response of Capacitor | RC Circuit: Time Constant & Transient Response

Definition: The response of current and voltage in a circuit immediately after a change in applied voltage is called the transient response. Refer to Figure 1. A capacitor and a resistor are connected in series across a voltage source. A circuit that contains resistance and capacitance is called an RC …

## Electrical Substation: Types & Components

Power transmission is the moving of electrical energy from the source to the end user. It includes the transmission substation and the distribution substation. The installation of new structures and facilities always raises public concerns that need to be addressed. Moving power is one of the issues accompanying renewable energy …

## Challenges in Smart Grid Implementation

The smart grid is defined as the electrical distribution technology that uses computer-based remote control and automation to improve the delivery efficiency of electricity. In this section, issues with the smart grid implementation are discussed. In the standard grid, information, and energy in the grid travel in one direction: from …

## Induction Generator: Types & Working Principle | Permanent Magnet Generator Working Principle

An induction generator is a type of asynchronous generator, meaning the waveform that is generated is not synchronized to the rotational speed. Induction generators are widely used in wind turbines and some smaller hydroelectric installations due to their simplicity. Another type of asynchronous generator is the permanent magnet generator. Permanent …

## AC Synchronous Generator: Working Principle, Types

A synchronous generator is a machine that produces AC voltage when its shaft is rotated. A synchronous generator is called synchronous because the generated voltage waveform it produces is synchronized with the rotation of the generator. Synchronous Generator Basics A synchronous generator is an ac generator in which the output …

## DC Generator: Types, Working, Parts | Classification of DC Generators

When a conductor is moved through a magnetic field, a voltage is induced across the conductor by electromagnetic induction. Electromagnetic induction is the fundamental principle underlying electrical generators. A DC generator is one of the simplest generators to understand, so it is introduced first. Classification of DC Generators Several types …

## Power Quality Issues in Renewable Energy Systems

The term power quality is a measure of the purity of the AC power, including the presence of unwanted harmonics and noise on the power line and the frequency. A harmonic is a frequency that is a whole-number multiple of another basic frequency. Harmonics on the power line are multiples of the power line …