VFD Variable Frequency Drive – a technology where the rotational speed of an electric motor is controlled or varied electronically. VAR The unit for reactive power Q. Voltage Drop The voltage drop across a resistance is the product of current time’s resistance (IR). Voltage Source A two-terminal circuit element having …

Read More »## Factors Affecting Capacitance | Dielectric Constant

There are three main factors affecting the capacitance of the capacitors that will be discussed in this tutorial in detail. The SI unit of capacitance is farad, named in honor of the English physicist and chemist Michael Faraday. The unit symbol for the farad is F. capacitance is the ability …

Read More »## Wire Gauge Sizes | Circular mils

In order to compare the resistance and conductor sizes with each other, we need to establish a convenient unit. This unit is the mil-foot (mil-ft). A conductor will possess this unit size if having one mil (0.001 inches) diameter and a length of one foot. The standardized unit for wire …

Read More »## Types of Resistors | Power Resistor

Resistor An element used to reduce supply voltages to some desired value or to limit current. A resistor is a small component of two leads. A wide variety of resistors is used in the electronics industry today. Carbon composition resistor The carbon composition resistor is the basic mass-produced resistor of …

Read More »## Nonlinear Resistors | Characteristics Curves of Nonlinear Devices

In most circuits, we can assume that resistance is constant in relation to current and voltage. This linear relation can be graphically shown in figure 1. Fig.1: Plot of Linear Relation between Current and Voltage For example, if 3V is applied to a certain resistor and 1A flows, then 6V …

Read More »## How to Read Resistor Color Code | Resistor Color Bands

Carbon resistors are color coded- that is, they have several color bands painted around the body near one end- to identify their ohmic values. Other types of resistors are not color-coded; instead, they have their ohmic values and, sometimes, identifying part numbers printed on them. The code has been established by …

Read More »## Resistor Power Rating | Power resistor

The physical size of a resistor is not determined by its resistance but by how much power, or heat, it can dissipate. It electric circuits, the unit of power is the watt (W), named in honor of James Watt. One watt is the power dissipated when one ampere flows under …

Read More »## W

Winding Capacitance A side effect of inductors caused by multiple wraps of wire being in close proximity. Winding Resistance The DC resistance of the wire making up the inductor. Wheatstone bridge Wheatstone bridge is used to measure unknown resistance Weber The SI unit of magnetic flux. Watt Power …

Read More »## Impedance Measurement Theory

The opposition that a circuit offers to the flow of AC is called impedance. By measuring the voltage and current in an AC circuit and utilizing the following equation $Z={}^{V}/{}_{I}$ We can obtain the magnitude of circuit impedance. However, it is often desirable to separate impedance into resistive and reactive …

Read More »## Ohmmeter Basic Concepts and Working Principle

Ohmmeter Definition An ohmmeter is an instrument used to measure the resistance. It is an instrument containing a voltage source and a meter directly calibrated in ohms. Series Ohmmeter One type of ohmmeter is the series ohmmeter, so called because the meter movement is in series with the source of …

Read More »## Trigonometric Fourier Series Solved Examples

Why Fourier series? There are many functions that are important in engineering which are not sinusoids or exponentials. A few examples are square waves, saw-tooth waves, and triangular pulses. Indeed, a function may be represented by a set of data points and have no analytical representation given at all. In …

Read More »## Classification of Systems in Signals and Systems

Systems can be classified into following different categories in signals and systems because of their inherent properties: Order of the system Causal and non-causal systems Linear and Non-Linear Systems Fixed and Time-Varying Systems Lumped and Distributed parameter Systems Continuous-time and Discrete-time Systems Instantaneous and dynamic systems Before proceeding to more …

Read More »## Bode Plot Example | Bode Diagram Example MATLAB

Bode Plot Example of First-Order System using Matlab In this article, Bode Plot of Simple Phase-Lag Network (First Order System) is obtained using Matlab. In order to draw Bode Plot, we need transfer function from which we deduce the equations for Magnitude and Phase. \[G(s)=\frac{1}{2s+1}\] Function in the frequency domain …

Read More »## Bode Plot MATLAB | Bode Plot Transfer Function

Bode Plot Definition H.W. Bode introduced a method to present the information of a polar plot of a transfer function GH(s), actually the frequency response GH (jω), as two plots with the angular frequency were at the common axis. The first plot shows the magnitude of the transfer function as …

Read More »## State Space Representation and Example

The state space models derivation is not contrary to that of transfer functions in that the differential equations are written first in order to express the system dynamics.Generally, In transfer function models, these differential equations are transformed and variables are carried off between them in order to achieve the relation …

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